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Les symboles divins solaires hittites. Circulation ou invention ?
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During Antiquity, Men live everyday the constant presence of the sun. Therfore their lifestyle is influenced by the sunlight and its positive heat. It could explain the fact that the Sun God becomes one of the main divinities. However civilizations from diverse regions of the Ancient Near East perceive the Sun in the same way. The representation is it invented in each place? Or is it broadcast a culture to another ? This concern centred on Anatolia is the heart of this paper that will attempt to highlight different points of view of the symbolism of the Solar divinity.
 

 

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L’apprentissage de la métrologie à Ougarit à la fin de l’âge du Bronze récent
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Within the lexicographic framework, the metrological texts in Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform discovered at Ras-Shamra provide a testimony for the formulation of metrological knowledge at Ugarit towards the end of the Late Bronze Age. I Have chosen to compare these data with the older material from Nippur and hope to show that the Ugaritic measures of content and surface show Old-Babylonian antecedents for some of their elements while others are of local origin.
 

 

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La littérature d'Ougarit, creuset de traditions venues d'outremer et d'outremonts
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The myths of Ras Shamra-Ugarit contain a western legacy illustrated by the gods Kôtharu wa Hasisu and Qadisu wa 'Amraru and related to the migration of skills. The eastern legacy is illustrated by the mythico-magic document “H˚oron and the snakes”, related to the transfers of knowledge. In the legends of Kirta and Aqhatu, several elements are related to the transmission of wisdom.
 

 

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La transmission de l'alphabet phénicien aux Grecs.  “Confrontation dialectique” des théories de B. B. Powell et de R. D. Woodard et synthèse de S.-T. Teodorsson
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Studies on the origin and development of the alphabet are very abundant: considering the last twenty years only, I listed more than thirty papers and monographs, which focus their attention on the mother script and antiquity of the Greek alphabet or the place and modalities of its transmission. In this paper, I shall comment three key theories, namely these of B.B. Powell (1991), related with Homeric epics, R.D. Woodard (1997), related with Cypriot syllabic writing, and S.-T. Teodorsson (2006), related with oriental literature. I chose them because they offer a global model of the alphabet’s historical reconstitution, which takes into consideration all parts of the question. Powell’s “Homer related” theory and Woodard’s, on a Cypriot origin, apparently completely opposed, seem to be combined to a certain degree by Teodorsson, who proposes a kind of compromise between literary influence and trade routes.
 

 

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Plato Ikhwanianus. Retour sur le récit platonicien de l'anneau de Gygès dans l'encyclopédie des Frères de la Pureté
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In the 52nd and last epistle of the Brethren of Purity, one finds a passage which is a very faithful translation of Plato’s famous narrative about the ring of Gyges. Taking into account the literality of the translation, the size of the passage (about 30 lines) and the precision of the reference made to the original text, it may fairly be assumed that it is a unicum in the history of the transmission of Plato to the Arab world. The purpose of this paper is to take up again this issue and try to bring up some new elements to the discussion.
 

 

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Le Platon arabe et les Sabéens de Harran. La "voie diffuse" de la transmission du platonisme en terre d'Islam
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In the absence of integral and litteral Arabic translations of Plato’s dialogues, the transmission of Platonism in the Muslim world was an indirect one, passing through different channels such as medical works, doxographies and gnomologies. The complexity and relative obscurity of this ‘voie diffuse’, in which according to Pierre Thillet oral transmission played an important role, led to all kinds of hazardous speculations about the existence of a Platonic Academy among the “Sabaens” in Ḥarrān, which was supposed to be still in activity in the Xth century. This article proposes a critical analysis of one of the most quoted “evidences” for this theory: al-Mas‘ūdī’s report about a Platonic inscription he claims to have seen on the door-knocker of the maǧma‘ of the Sabaeans in Ḥarrān. Rather than proving the existence of a “Platonic Academy” there, al-Mas‘ūdī offers us an eloquent illustration of the way Platonism was transmitted in the Muslim world.
 

 

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La migration du savoir entre les communautés : le cas de la littérature arabe chrétienne
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This paper addresses the important phenomenon of contacts and influences between the various religious communities of the pre-modern Near East in the field of the written heritage, and more particularly in that of Christian Arabic literature. The introduction discusses several examples of such interchange, on the one hand, between the various Christian communities (Melkites, Syrians, Copts) and between various language traditions (Syriac, Armenian, Coptic, Arabic) and on the other hand, between Christian and Muslim intellectual environments. The main part of the paper investigates the textual similarities that can be detected in the works of Sulaymān al-Ġazzī, Melkite bishop of Ghazza in the the tenth and eleventh centuries A.D., and the famous Epistles of the Iḫwān al-Ṣafā’ (Brethren of Purity). Some preliminary suggestions are given for the question as to how such similarities might have come about.
 

 

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L’influence du traité "Les airs, les eaux et les lieux" d’Hippocrate chez les penseurs arabes du Moyen Âge
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In this paper, I want to show the influence of the hippocratic treatise On airs, waters, places ((Περὶ ἀέρων, ὑδάτων, τόπων) and Galen’s commentary in particular, on the arabic scientific literature. Of course, we find it in medicine but also in geography. In this field, the Galen’s commentary of hippocratic text determined the base of the theory of geographical determinism, giving a conceptual structure (physic and even physiological) to the influence of the man’s environment. The mediaeval thinkers applied this theory to the humanity and in this context, the hippocratic opposition between Schythians and Egyptians is replaced by the one between Turks and Egyptians or Slaves and Blacks. They used it also to explain the physical constitution and the ethics of a specific population.
 
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Les débuts de l'alphabet en Orient et en Occident. Quelle ambiance !
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The creation of the alphabet and its diffusion occurred in a very particular climate, characterized by an extreme freedom and inventiveness.
This apparently irrepressible outburst appears not only in the very beginnings of the alphabet in the Middle East (from ca 2000 BC) but also when it was diffused in Asia Minor and Occident — in the Phrygian world, since the end of the IXth c., and in Greece and Italy, since ca 775.
 

 

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De Baghdad à Cordoue : une migration de la tradition grammaticale arabe
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The Arabic Grammatical Tradition aims at studying the Kalâm-ʾl-ʿArab or “Language of the Arabs”, relying on texts written before 130/750. ʾAbû ʿAlî al-Qâlî (Manâzgird 280/893 – Cordoba 355/966), after having learnt Arabic grammar in Baghdad, has left the city in 328/939 for teaching in Cordoba from 330/941, applying the principles of Basra Grammatical School Tradition. He wrote several books, but one of them may be considered as typical for this Tradition : “The Book of Shortened and Extended Noun”, a critical edition of which has recently been published by Dr. al-Haridi. Al-Qâlî does no more regard “shortened noun” (ʾism maqṣûr) and “reduced noun” (ʾism manqûṣ) as synonymous as Ancient Grammarians did. In his view, a shortened noun is a noun where a /y/ or a /w/ is included as a radical. He looks for a main structural principle organizing grammatical rules, putting aside the nawâdir or unusual words. So that we may think about him as occupying an intermediary position between Ibn Sarrâǧ and Ibn Ǧinnî in the history of Arabic Grammatical Tradition.
 
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La Chine illustrée d’Athanase Kircher (China monumentis illustrata, 1667). La découverte des caractères chinois et son apport aux débats sur les écritures au XVIIe siècle
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The discovery and knowledge of Chinese characters in the 17th century nourished reflections about the principal ideas that occupied the thinkers of the 17th century. Kircher, best known as an Egyptologist, popularized information about China. As for writing, the comparison with Egyptian hieroglyphs allowed him to oppose on one hand a writing which corresponded to ordinary words and language used in everyday life, and on the other the subtlety and the mystery of Egyptian hieroglyphs, which remained removed from the day-to-day life due to their inspiration stemming from more abstract ideas.
 
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Les échanges de motifs littéraires entre chrétiens et musulmans à l’époque ottomane : le cas de la tradition orale des âşık
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The analysis of the Turkish popular literature, which was told and sung by the âşık, the story-tellers who used to recite their folk stories in the remote villages of Anatoly, shows that though these folk stories are original, some of their episodes go back to former traditions, like the Armenian legends and the Byzantine epos. In the same time, the religious and/or ethnic minorities of the Ottoman Anatolia – Greek, Armenian and Georgian Christians, but also Jews and Shiite Muslims – developed various attitudes toward these Anatolian folk stories. In some cases, they adopted it as they were told and they introduced them in their own repertory. In other cases, they adapted, partially or totally, these folk stories, making their heroes Christians or Shiites, changing their names and their places of birth. All these attitudes show the extreme vitality of the oral tradition in Anatolia.
 
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La circulation des biens et des savoirs en Égypte romaine
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There is still a false look about commerce in Antiquity. Many clichés like life in autarky always exist. But, in Roman Egypt, commerce seems to be something of more complex.
There is local productions (like mining exploitations), but some towns are true centres of circulation of goodies coming from far away. Some sites testify of contacts with Arabia, India, Red Sea…by the way of ports like Berenice. Roads for caravans lie through deserts, with some military camps, wells and temples along them. Religious centres in commercial towns seem to be some keys to understand much the conception of commerce in Antiquity. In Roman Egypt, the emperor is portray like pharaoh offering local goodies (or exportation products coming in the site) to the pantheon. This fact could be easily explain: the piety of the king help to focalise the goodness of the gods on earthly economy.
 
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La mythologie ougaritique dans son cadre historique
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Scholarly opinion on the origins of Ugaritic mythology, in particularly the myths having to do with the storm deity Baʿlu, has varied considerably over the eighty some years since the discovery of these tablets. Traditional Mesopotamian sources were cited as parallels early on, then Amorite influence was posited.  Recently, the hypothesis of a Mesopotamian connection has been revived under a new form.  These varied explanations for a Levantine mythology showing similarities with other Near-Eastern mythologies, not to mention Aegean ones, will be passed rapidly in review and the peculiarities of the Ugaritic version will be emphasized.
 

 

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Transmission et vivacité des traditions céramiques locales durant l’occupation assyrienne. Le cas du bas Moyen-Euphrate syrien
S. SALMON. — The excavations on the site of Tell Masaïkh (Syria) brought to light a ceramic material, dated the Iron Age II. His study allowed the identification of typologies belonging to the Neo-Assyrian tradition and others which are certainly local…
 
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Migration des savoirs entre l’Elam et la Mésopotamie
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This article focuses on the transfer of knowledge and wisdom between Mesopotamia and Elam…
 

 

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Le développement de la coupole dans l’architecture iranienne à l’époque islamique : un exemple de diffusion du savoir
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The technical developpment of the dome has been improved step by step during the islamic period. Political rulers have understood that the knowledges in architecture may serve the spread of Islam. In Iran, the power encouraged different groups of builders that became under the supervision of experts in the art of construction true shools giving birth to different styles and moods in architecture. According to the territorial increase of Islam, teachers and their most skillful students were invited to built monuments through the islamic world. They greatly helped the spread of knowledges. With regard to the problem of the weight of the dome, they contribued to the progressive increase of its stability through more simple forms.
 

 

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Entre Rome, Babylone et les Indes. Bardésane, stoïcien universaliste
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About 218 AD, the Syrian author and nobleman Bardayṣan met with an Indian embassy, on its way to the Roman imperial court in the city of Emesa. We try to demonstrate that his report, strongly marked by his Stoic concepts about cultural identity and relativity, became the source of Greek and Arab knowledge about the Buddhists and the Brahmans, starting from his contemporary Philostrates to Abū ‘Īsā al-Warrāq and Ibn Zur‘a in the 10th Century.
 

 

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The Kouris Valley Project 2007-2009. An overview
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Le Kouris Valley Project est un projet de recherche mené par l’Université de Florence en collaboration avec les Universités de Chieti et de Turin dans la région de Kourion (Limassol, Chypre)… 
 
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Le Alpi orientali del versante italiano tra età del Ferro e tarda Antichità. Sintesi storica in funzione dei più recenti dati archeologici
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M. CAVALIERI, « Le Alpi orientali del versante italiano tra età del Ferro e tarda Antichità. Sintesi storica in funzione dei più recenti dati archeologici  », Res Antiquae 7, Brussels, 2010, p. 271-330.
 
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Dalla città romana alla città alto-medievale in Italia. Il modello classico urbano verso l’eterogeneità delle forme insediative medievali
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 L’article aborde le problème complexe de la transformation urbaine entre l’Antiquité tardive et le Haut Moyen Age ; le contexte enquêté est celui de l’Italie du Nord entre le iiie et le viiie s. de notre ère, en particulier les siècles de la domination lombarde de la péninsule. L’analyse de l’administration et de l’économie de la civitas est amplement étudiée, ainsi que le problème posé par des termes tels qu’urbs, civitas, municipium, toutes expressions provenant de formules issues de la tradition et du droit romains.
Après une étude de cas concrets en milieu urbain (Brescia, Milan, Vérone), les résultats montrent que le schéma idéal d’une ville lombarde en l’Italie du nord n’existe pas. Les recherches montrent les données archéologiques qui mettent en évidence la grande diversité de plans des centres urbains qui ont survécu à la transition de l’Antiquité tardive à l’époque médiévale.
 
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Die 10. Tafel des ḫišuu̯a-Festes
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La fête ḫišuu̯a, composée dans la forme classique à l’ordre de la reine Puduḫepa, comprend treize tablettes. Dans cet article, la dixième tablette est traitée sur la base de tous les textes identifiés actuellement.
 
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Dendour ou le temple exilé
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Dendour is a tiny but very interesting temple made by emperor Augustus in the Dodekaschenos, in the south of Egypt, next to the frontier with Nubia. Now, it is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, USA because it was given to the American government as thanks for help in the Aswan project. It is dedicated to two drowned brothers, venerated as “saints” by the local people. The scenes show these young men (but also divinities particularly venerated in Nubia) honorated by Augustus who give them local goodies as gold, incense, ivory…The cartouche of the king are interesting: some contain his name of pharaoh but some only the title Per- aha. The localisation of these cartouches seems to be not free: it could be an expression of political message of Augustus in this area what suffer of many conflicts and  revolts involving Roman Empire and Nubian sovereigns as the queen “Candace”. 
 
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Pepy-ankh Heny le noir de Meir (tombe A2) a-t-il usurpé le titre de vizir ?
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The purpose of this article is to determine if Pepy-ankh Heny-Kem (tomb A2 at Meir) wrongfully took the title of vizier. The different arguments to know if he is a real vizier will be examined. A study of the viziers of the sixth dynasty is presented.  An examination of the family of Pepy-ankh Heny-Kem is also making. We propose a study of all the titles of Pepy-ankh Heny-Kem.
 
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Reines commagéniennes. La place des "basilissai" dans les hiérothésia et Iotapè Philadelphe
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What were the queens’ and princesses’ official functions in the Commagenian kingdom? The goal of this paper is to study their place in Antiochos I Theos’ religious reform (c 69-36 BC) especially on the Nemrud Daǧɩ. In a second section, we study Iotape Philadelphos’ role beside her husband, Antiochos IV Epiphanes (38-72 AD), and her presence in the Commagenian coinage.
 
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Le nom de la mer Rouge en égyptien ancien
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In 1931 to designate the Red Sea in the egyptian texts, Spiegelberg could list seven names. Eighty years later,  none of them still has this signification. The basic meaning of the nun, wadj wer, the ym and its various combinations, is fresh water from Egypt, that is to say : from the Nile.
 
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Euhemeros von Messene. Ökonomisches Denken in einer “Utopie” der hellenistischen Zeit
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Dans l’Écriture Sacrée de Evhémère le Messinien, conseiller du roi des Macédoniens, Cassandre décrit la situation socio-économique des îles de l’Océan indien, que lui-même a visitées. Les traits caractéristiques de la structure de la société et de l’économie des îles sont la répartition sociale du travail entre la population, l’évaluation positive du manoeuvre, ainsi que la politique économique centralisée et l’économie des incitations à la partie la plus productive de la population. Un passage souligne ce que possèdent les prêtres, lesquels exercent le pouvoir supérieur. Le travail de Evhémère, relevant du genre littéraire politique “mytho-historique” (Staatsroman) des temps hellénistiques, appartient à la catégorie du mirror for princes, qui aboutit à projeter sur le prince la conception de la société idéale.
 
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Néron et le "De clementia" de Sénèque, racine ou rupture ?
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At the same time Seneca is the thinker of the government over which the last prince Julio-claudian reigns, and the thinker of the « new » political designation should thus be given to translate the concepts invented by him for Nero’s reign. The Nero’s tutor has been expressed through three types of discourse – one philosophical, one political and a satirical theatrical work. All of them consist of a continous meditation on power. One book emerges from this polyphonical and political discourse ; the De clementia, founding pillar of both the new princely ideology and the shift to the political action of the concepts embodied in the person of Nero. The De clementia gives the impression of being both consistent with the political values developed by the Ancients, and the thought of a new political era. Then, can we consider the De clementia as a root or, alternatively, as a rupture ?
 

 

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I patronimici in -ίδᾱς del greco antico tra conservazione e innovazione
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Cet essai analyse les dérivés en -ίδᾱς en grec ancien, présence bien attestée – avec la valeur de patronymiques – dans la langue homérique. Après avoir écarté la validité des interprétations déjà existantes sur l’origine de ce suffixe, qu’il est malaisé de considérer en tant qu’agglomerat de -ίδ- + -ᾱς, on propose de postuler une origine microasiatique pour le suffixe -ίδᾱς dans sa globalité. Il s’agirait, en effet, du suffixe indo-européen *-iyo- (d’ailleurs bien attesté pour les adjectifs de relation), qui serait medié du lydien, vu qu’il présente l’évolution phonétique *y > d en position intervocalique, phénomène qui apparaît fréquemment dans la langue lydienne.
 

 

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Evolution of the Scale Armour in the Ancient Near East, Aegean and Egypt. An Overview from the Origins to the Pre-Sargonids
F. DE BACKER. — À première vue, l’armure d’écailles qui était utilisée au Proche-Orient ancien, en Égypte et dans le monde égéen contemporains n’a encore jamais été étudiée ou survolée en tant qu’ensemble…
 

 

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À propos de deux fragments de l'épopée de Gilgameš en langue hourrite
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The paper deals with two badly damaged passages of the Epic of Gilgameš written in the Hurrian language (KUB VIII 61). The first passage corresponds to Tablet I of the standard Babylonian text and the lament of Uruk's inhabitants about the tyrannic rule of their king. The second passage narrates the encounter of Gilgameš and Šiduri and corresponds to Tablet X. It can be noted that the Hurrian version is inspired by the oldest version and not the standard version, which is about a millennium more recent.
 
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L’inscription phénicienne de Tabnit (KAI 13). Essai de vocalisation
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The aim of this article is to propose a vocalisation of the Phoenician inscription of Tabnit (KAI 13). It begins with an introduction about the methodology. Then follows a line by line commentary where all the choices are explained. It ends with some syntactical remarks.
 

 

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Mazaca. Un site à “tous égards naturellement impropre à l’habitat”
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I’m interested in Strabo’s description of Mazaca in Cappadocia. The description of this polis, with its wealth of information, is exceeded only by the descriptions of Alexandria and Rome. However, I don’t believe that this presentation is based on what the author would have observed. Strabo certainly uses local sources, perhaps royal cappadocian traditions.
 

 

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Le cas d'Ewri-Sarruma, fils royal
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Ewri-Sarruma is one of these high-ranking persons of the Syro-anatolian society which is DUMU.LUGAL "royal son" and which we find in the texts of Ougarit, Bogazköy and on the seals of Nişantepe. This article takes back all these documents, the various written forms of the name Ewri-Sarruma as well as an analysis of this person. I also try to date most exactly possible these texts and seals.
 

 

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Notes relatives à la ville de Landa
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This article on the city of Landa fits into a plan of study concerning several cities of Anatolia, in particular religious centres. It is a question of collecting texts mentioning this city, to give a transliteration with translation and try to place her in Anatolia.
 

 

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Crudelis tu quoque, mater. Sur un passage problématique du chant de Damon (Virgile, VIIIe Bucolique, v. 47-50)
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The verses 47-50 of the eighth Eclogue are very confusing: they refer to personae whose identity can’t be clearly established (crudelis mater, puer improbus). Besides, their inelegantly emphatic form lets us suppose a textual corruption. Yet, an intertextual approach helps us to shed light on the meaning of the passage: the portrayal of incest in Catullian Carmen 64 (v. 403-406) − which obviously influenced Virgil − is very close to Virgilian verses, and takes place in a similar context: the depiction of crimes induced by Love. Hence our hypothesis that the ‘cruel mother’ (crudelis mater) and the ‘indecent child’ (improbus puer) are mentioned as an anonymous exemplum of incest.
 

 

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Naharina et Mitanni au IIe millénaire avant J.-C. À propos des maryannou et de la présence hourrite en Égypte
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During the New Egyptian Kingdom, numerous foreigners stayed in Egypt. If some of them came with a lot of diplomatic embassies, the others were captured during military campaigns. Children of foreign kings stayed in the kap’s school of the palace, and princesses are given in marriage to Egyptian king. Among these foreigners, Hurrians and their famous maryannou exercised a very important domination.
 
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De la Vallée du Nil au Pays du Fleuve. Réflexions à propos du Naharina
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The aim of this paper is to put in light the historical, political and geographical context of the Late Bronze Age Middle East that led to the apparition of the toponym Naharina in Egyptian Texts. What was the reality behind this term ? Why did it occur so frequently in Egyptian sources despite the non-egyptian etymological origin ? Was it linked to the Hurrian Empire of Mitanni ? These are questions which at some point will need clear answers.
 

 

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Urartu. Les sources épigraphiques de la langue
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Following the publication of the Corpus of Urartian Inscriptions, namely of the first three volumes dedicated to the monumental texts (inscriptions on building stones and rocks) it is important to stress the importance of strong epigraphic research for linguistic studies. Apart from the well known methods of interpretation of an ancient language (ethymology, bilinguals, combinatory method) in the case of Urartian there is another one, consisting mainly in the study of the connections between inscriptions and their monumental and archaeological contexts. In this article some rock inscriptions are studied and interpretations of lexical elements and grammatical forms are offered. All these hypotheses are based exclusively on in situ study of inscriptions both in Eastern Turkey and Iranian Azerbaijan.
 
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Élamite. Analyse grammaticale et lecture de textes
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Elamite, a limited text-corpus language, was spoken in southwest Iran at least from c. 2350 till the fourth century BC. In this article a general overview of the Elamite grammar (writing system, phonology, morphology, and syntax) is presented. Following this presentation some texts will be discussed.
 

 

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Per l’etimo dell’ittito maškan-
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Cet essai analyse le mot hittite maškan- « don, récompense propitiatoire, dessous de table » afin d’en proposer une étymologie. L’étude des attestations montre que la composante principale de la signification de maškan- pourrait appartenir au domaine de l’illégalité. À la lumière de ceci on propose d’analyser le mot maškan- comme un dérivé en -an (sur l’exemple de l’hittite ¯enkan- « ruine, mort », takšan- « jonction, moyen ») de la racine indo-européenne *mesg- « immerger, submerger » : maškan- serait alors, littéralement, « ce qui est souterrain, ce qui est caché ».
 
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Cruelty and Military Refinements
F. DE BACKER. — La mutilation et la fragmentation des corps des ennemis vaincus appartenaient aux techniques de combat néo-assyriennes…
 
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Lat. "gravastellus" (Plaut. "Epid." 620): un "hapax" problematico
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L’adjectif plautinien grāvāstellus (Ep., 620) a toujours posé des problèmes à l’analyse  linguistique, étant donné qu’il s’agit d’un hapax et aussi parce qu’il n’a été pas transmis de manière univoque par tous les manuscrits (dans certains d’entre eux, on lit ravistellus). Toutefois, la forme grāvāstellus est défendable du point de vue philologique, si on prend en compte l’authenticité et l’autorité de la tradition qui l’atteste. Il est possible, dès lors, de faire remonter grāvāstellus à un étymon *grā-u̯os, qui se retrouve dans la variante plus récente rāvus, « gris ». Lié étymologiquement à des formes grecques telles que γραῦς, « vieille femme », l’adjectif *grā-u̯os comporte un signifié primitif « vieux », qui a donné, par spécialisation sémantique, le sens de « gris » dans rāvus. L’existence de telles variations en latin est confirmée par la comparaison avec les autres langues indo-européennes.
 
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Expulser l’autre. À propos d’un rituel ombrien (TI VI b 52 à VII a 2)
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The present paper aims at analyzing the description of an Umbrian ritual (TI VI b 52 to VII a 2). During this ritual, the foreigners are expelled from among the citizens of Iguvium. I examine how aggressive urges are unleashed, and on the same time controlled, in the frame of the religious performance.
 
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Anfang und Ende des Ersten Pestgebetes Muršilis II.
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Tout hittitologue ou spécialiste de l’histoire de l’Anatolie antique devra se réjouir de voir avantageusement restaurés, grâce à de nouveaux « joins », deux passages de la première prière contre la peste qui ravageait le Hatti du Grand Roi hittite Moursili II (1318-1290 av. J.-C.) ; il s’agit du Ro 1-7, 16-22 et du Vo 44-51. La publication enrichissante de ces deux passages est assortie d’observations philologiques d’un grand intérêt.
 
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Les inscriptions de Lepcis Magna en l’honneur de Septime Sévère et de sa famille. Deuxième partie
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This article is the second part of a study intituled « The inscriptions of Lepcis Magna in honour of Septimius Severus and his family ». In this first article, we exposed the epigraphically corpus used and tried to identified author of this texts (see).
 
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L’enfant de la  IVe Bucolique : un autre Zarathuštra ?
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Because the ambiguousness of the Latin grammar we don’t know who in Virgil’s 4th Eclogue (vv. 60 – 63) smiles (the child to his mother or the mother to her child). In order to work out this problem we compare the birth of the child and Zoroaster’s whose Virgil’s contemporaries knew the live, at least partly. We thus may say not only the child smiles to his mother, but also he is born in a religious environment, as when Zoroaster was born. In the 4th Eclogue, Virgil provides the child with some Zoroaster’s salient features, in order that the child has the qualities of the founder of the religion the Parthians, i.e. the Rome’ enemies, practise, and because the child will see the submission of the Parthians.
 
9,50 €
Antiquité classique et tradition biblique en symbiose dans l’Anthologie Palatine, VIII, Epigrammes 12-23
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In order to situate the Anthologia Palatina in the cultural history of Europe, this article analyses twelve literary epitaphs of Gregory of Nazianzus : 1. Book XXIV, Epitaphia 12-23, texts and observations; 2. biographical order of the poems; 3. the junction of classical and patristic traditions; 4. private poetry.
 
9,50 €
Byzance et le Mont Athos au Petit Palais à Paris
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Under the auspices of the municipality of Paris, the art and history of Byzantium have been presented to the public in an exhibition gathering together a large collection of treasures from Mount Athos at the Petit Palais in Paris from the 10th of April to the 5th of July 2009.
 
9,50 €
Le rôle politique des femmes de la dynastie d’Hérode. Hérodiade, Cypros, Bérénice, Salomé
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What were the princesses' official functions in the herodian dynasty ? We propose to analyse the women's place in the herodian propaganda as well as their political role beside the king. An evolution can be highlighted : contrary to Herod the Great, who was a "king without queen", Agrippa I, Agrippa II and Aristobulus decided to show themselves with a queen beside them. From then, monarchy had to be embodied by a royal couple.
 
9,50 €
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