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Éric RAIMOND. — Paper about Apollo’s origins through Theonym’s etymology, reflection on first possible appearences in Hittite and Linear B, how he looks like in Ilias and Traditions close to his birth place…
 
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Federica Maria RISO. — The aim of the study is the investigation of funerary rituals  in a necropolis of Mutina (now Modena), a Roman colony of the Cisalpine founded in 183 BC along the Via Aemilia, important both for military-strategic and economic reasons…
 
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Zsolt SIMON. — Based on the combinatory analysis of some interconnected Carian inscriptions this paper argues that Carian mδa and related forms are not particle chains as generally held…
 
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Thierry STASSER. — By Mid third Century BC, Kings of Syria inaugurated a policy of alliances with the Kingdoms of Pontos and Cappadocia, characterized by marriages of Seleucid princesses to Pontos rulers – with the exception of Antiochos III and his first cousin Laodice of Pontos…
 
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Jacques VANSCHOONWINKEL. — Women occupied an important place in the Aegean world of the Bronze Age, as evidenced by the clearly predominant female presence in the iconography of the period. This article focuses on the role of women in Aegean religions…
 
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Adolfo ZAVARONI. — L’auteur interprète les cruciformes des écritures liguriennes comme des supports rotatifs schématiques de la voûte céleste et donc comme des représentations symboliques des deux grands dieux qui gouvernent les cycles universels…
 
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The Founders of Rome as a Sequence of Mythic Figures
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The subject of Rome’s origins is one where the discourses of comparative mythology and archaeology can interact, but such interaction has never been easy. In approaching the subject here from the mythological point of view, I shall not have space to advance the dialogue explicitly, but hope the discussion will be useful to those who do pursue it.
 
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Le voyage involontaire de l’aurige Ratumena
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According to the legend, Ratumena was an Etruscan charioteer who won a race in the city of Veii but, after his victory, was dragged away by his horses, that brought the chariot to Rome, where they stopped in front of the Capitoline temple. This story seems to reflect the same pattern which appears in the Roman ritual of the equus October (horse of October) and the Indian asvamedha (sacrifice of an horse made by a king), i e the competition between different groups for the possession of an horse, whose scope is to provide one of these competitors with sovereignty.
 
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Trésors et sépultures subaquatiques. Variations sur une légende perdue
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Investigation of a very ancient and widespread type of migratory legend which so far has not been taken into account in the systematic catalogues and international subject-indexes elaborated by specialists of folk-literature and mythology. The plot of these tales –the oldest known version of which seems to be Sumerian– usually concerns a dead king (or another charismatic character) who is buried, sometimes with his treasure, under the bed of a river, whose stream has been diverted and then reinstated so as to hide the place from discovery. The author discusses the origins of this oriental taletype and the successive meanings it assumes, especially when borrowed and recycled in indo-european contexts.
 
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Ulysse et Télémaque, un parcours symbolique en termes de comparatisme
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Georges Dumézil has suggested that Ulysses’final struggle with the suitors is the equivalent of the destruction of Troy or the battle of Kurukshetra (Mahabharata). One can readily understand that two opposing forces encounter each other, each organised according to the hierarchy of the three Indo-European functions : 1 Odysseus against Antinous / 2 Telemachus against Eurymachus / 3 Eumaeus and Philoitius against Ctessipus, Polybus and Agelaus. Seen from this point of view, I consider the different adventures of Odysseus as stages in his downfall, the last being his experience with Calypso whose name is the symbol of nothingness, before his recovery (symbolised by the gifts of the Phaeacians) which is essential in view of the catastrophic state of the kingdom of Ithaca, weakened by too great a number of suitors. Symbolically, the Telemachia corresponds to the search for and the gradual reappearance of the god Lleu in Wales, otherwise known as Lugh in Ireland. Structurally speaking, the different parts of Ithaca are the same as the Indo-European provinces of Celtic Ireland.
 
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El mito de fundación de Lugdunum. Ensayo de lectura estructural
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Le mythe de fondation de Lugdunum, que nous lisons dans le traité du Ps-Plutarque, Sur les fleuves, a été étudié traditionnellement sans tenir compte de son rapport avec l’autre partie du texte sur le fleuve Arar ni avec l’ensemble de l’œuvre. Une étude de G. Charrière et A. Audin nous mène vers les possibilités qu’offre une lecture structurale du récit. Les deux parties du récit étant dominées par l’alose (un poisson) et des corbeaux, des espèces migratoires dans la région de Lyon où elles sont présentes pendant la canicule pour les premières et en hiver pour les seconds. Ceci, relié à d’autres traits anatomiques et éthologiques de ces animaux, permet de soutenir que le mythe s’inspire de certaines des caractéristiques remarquables du calendrier celtique (celui de Coligny a été trouvé à 100 km au nord de Lyon) comme éléments structurants le récit de fondation.
 
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Le dieu celtique Lugus, le soleil et l'organisation du territoire
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The aim of this study is to show the links between the Celtic god Lugus and landscape organization. We underline the important part of the light from sunrise – which has well known connexions with Lugus – in the process used by the Celts for their spatial orientation. By revealing the setting of a landmark, orientation constitutes a preliminary and essential step before the establishment of a space which will be intended to be inhabited by people. The analysis of Gaulish archaeological facts and Irish medieval tales perfectly highlights the relation of Mercury and Lug to strategic places which were used for the development of a human community: places of assembly, places where cities or provinces were founded, places on hilltop or located on a border, shrines, roads; moreover, some of them are frequently found in a same place, which demonstrates a real cohesion in the process of organizing landscape.
 
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The Passage "trans Tiberim" and the Debt Bondage in Early Rome
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En droit romain primitif, le débiteur était obligé à payer ses créances avant la fin de l’année en cours. La garantie de la dette se réalisait avec l’aide du serment aux dieux. Aux temps historiques, ces dieux étaient Jupiter et Saturne, apparentés aux dieux védiques Mitra et Varuṇa. En cas de non-paiement de la dette, le débiteur est considéré comme un violateur de serment, qui ne pouvait se trouver où se trouvait le dieu offensé par lui. Le débiteur devait quitter le territoire romain à la fin de l’année. S’il ne le faisait pas volontairement, il était vendu en Étrurie, où il perdait son statut civil et sa liberté. La procédure de condamnation des débiteurs insolvables de la loi des XII Tables montre que le chemin qui mène au Tibre était analogue au voyage qui mène vers l’autre monde, au règne de la mort.
 
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La figure du héros dans le monde anatolien antique
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In this contribution, the reader finds a short analysis of the Hittite-Luwian conception of the hastali- “the Hero”, an official title dedicated to the Hittite kings during the Hittite Empire.
 
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Culture and Nature, Road and Wilderness. The Ecology of Myth
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This paper looks at human attempts to understand and then to “order” the natural world, with special attention to “the road through the wood.”…
 
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Le Troiae lusus, le schéma du Labyrinthe et l’Octaétéride
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The diagram known as that “of the labyrinth” is not specific to the Cretan world nor to Knossos. Attested from the second millenium from Syria to the British isles, it seems that it might represent an octaeteris or period of eight years, corresponding to 99 months in the lunar calendar. The end of this cycle and the beginning of the following one gave rise to regeneration rituals, differing according to the region, whose souvenir survives notably in the legend of the Minotaur and in the Romans’ Troiae Lusus.
 
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Andrea Carandini, Romulus et les dema. Naissance, diffusion et ravages d’un produit ethnographique toxique
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The concept of dema is used in ethnography to designate a particular category of primordial beings in paleo-cultivator cultures. Certain Italian scholars have used it in their research on the origins of Rome, specifically when referring to Romulus. We might mention in particular A. Brelich, working in 1960, and, more recently, the archaeologist A. Carandini. The current paper retraces the history of the concept since its first appearance in 1922 up to the present day : how it has evolved over the decades, and how scholars have frequently applied it without sufficient rigour, generating between them a series of false hypotheses and propositions. In the interests of interdisciplinarity, it might be desirable to stray into the field of ethnography, but it is imperative to proceed with method. This requirement has not been respected in research done on the origins of Rome, an area in which the demas of ethnology have absolutely no role to play.
 
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Marginalité et souveraineté. Des chemins de traverse aux allées du pouvoir
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We will follow the Masters of paths. They are Pushan and Aryaman in India, Pan and Hermes in Ancient Greece; others are Scandinavian such as the god Ullr or Palnatoki, or anglo-saxon such as Robin Hood. Their tracks lead us from the rural or forest world to which they belong to the surroundings of the sovereign. They wander around him either to serve him and save his throne, or to betray him, replace him and even kill him. Sometimes, indo-european myth melts with History when for instance Antoine as Lupercal tries to crown Ceasar.
 
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De Jean de l’Ours à Persée ou de quelques modalités de la disjonction
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The tale of Jean de l'ours (Jean of the Bear) is like the Bird Nester myth , but in a reversed position. Both heroes experience a vertical disjunction, the first one downwards, the second one upwards. Now, some north Amerindian versions of the Bird Nester have exactly the same structure as the Perseus myth. But in this case the story develops horizontally. The disjunction, which disappeared with verticality, is reached in a different way : by crossing the ocean.
 
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L’usurpation de la souveraineté divine dans les mythologies scandinave et celte
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Scandinavian and Celtic myths propose close similar stories about two temporary losses of his royal power by the king of the gods, i.e. Odin, Math and Nuadha.
 
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L’exégèse théologique du Mahābhārata. Le système symbolique des amśāvatarana
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This article does not at all deal with the controverted ideological theory of the ‘three functions’ such as used by Stig Wikander and Georges Dumézil in their interpretation of the Indian epics, but examines the basis of what could be called their ‘theological exegesis’ of the Mahābhārata: the fact that the main heroes of the story are symbolically presented as the ‘partial incarnations’ of the gods, born on earth with a ‘part’ of themselves. Avoiding the unsolvable problems of some (Indo-European, Indo-Iranian or even Vedic) reconstructions proposed by Dumézil, this essay underlines the importance of taking into account the aṃśāvataraṇa list at first as it is given in the text, itself enlightened by a significant passage from its ‘supplement’ (viz. the Harivaṃśa), since it provides us with a specific pantheon existing at the time of the elaboration of the epics. In that respect, the ‘theological exegesis’ of Dumézil will probably remain his most important contribution to the understanding of the religious meaning of the Sanskrit epics in its oldest state.
 
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The Roman Regifugium. Myth and Ritual of the King's Journey Beyond the Boundary
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February 24 annually brings the archaic Roman ritual of the Regifugium, the ‘Flight of the King’…
 
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De l’influence des ‘Traités de vassalité’ hittites sur la composition du livre du deutéronome. Évaluation d’une théorie classique en exégèse biblique
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The hypothesis of an influence of the hittite vassal treaties on the biblical text has been proposed by Mendenhall in 1954, whoses studies dealt with the link between hittite texts and the Covenant narratives and laws in Ex 19-24, and later by Weinfeld who tried to demonstrate the influence of both akkadian legal texts and hittites treaties on the structure of the book of Deuteronomy. The recent research about the composition of Deuteronomy lead to the conclusion that the narrative and legal texts of this book belong to different stages of its composition, and so call in question Weinfeld’s hypothesis. Nevertheless, there could have been an indirect cultural influence of the hittite treaties on the biblical texts, and of the assyrian litterature as well, as the litterary analysis can find similarities in the concepts and in the vocabulary.
 
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Vision de l’autre à travers le voile du passé, vision de l’ailleurs ; entre oubli et mémoire éclatée, entre Histoire et mythologie : le cas hourro-hittite confronté aux légendes des Éthiopiens-kushites
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Few documents depict the various elements shaping the Hittite empire of the second millenium. The example of the Hurrians, who were the Hittites' foe at first before turning into their civilization masters, is relevant in this regard. Their symbiosis with the Hittites, which justifies the «Hurro-Hittites » designation, makes it difficult to uncover any alterity between them. This is all the more true from the perspective of the classical and biblical testimony. If the Hittite and Mitannian empires seem to have faded into oblivion, scholars of the modern era have raised some misquoted historical accounts. Thereby, it is arguable that other peoples from the Antiquity shared connections not yet identified, or not formally differentiated. In this respect, a large amount of evidence led my research towards Greek and Ethiopian texts, and the Kouchites of the bible, as anachronous as this may seem.
 
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Le grand mariage hittite de Ramsès II et son empreinte dans la mémoire égyptienne
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C. CANNUYER, « Le grand “mariage hittite” de Ramsès II et son empreinte dans la mémoire égyptienne », dans I. KLOCK-FONTANILLE, S. BIETTLOT et K. MESHOUB (éd.), Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de colloque, Université de Limoges 27-28 novembre 2008, Brussels, 2010, p. 87-104.
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Amour, musique et poésie au gré des relations égypto-hittites. Réflexions autour d’une statuette de harpiste ‘hittite’ de Médinet el-Gourob/Miour
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The Hittite-Egyptian relationships are not being tackled here based on the events that have marked international history. We will be looking at a little statue, which embodies a humble protagonist of the relations established between Egypt and Anatolia. This is the statue of a musician labelled as "Hittite", which was discovered in Médinet en-Gourob, the royal residence and harem where Asian spouses of the pharaoh are thought to have resided.
 
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L’apport hourrite dans l’élaboration de la culture hittite du XIIIe siècle av. J.-C.
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In the first part of this contribution the reader finds an historical aspect relating to the great moments of the Hurrian civilization . An information is added about the progress of the decipherment of the Hurrian language. The second part deals with the influence of the Hurrians during the 13st century B.C. especially over the Hittite language and the official religion of the Hittite Empire.
 
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Palaïte Ha-ap-na-aš (Hapnaš) : un vestige eurasiatique en anatolien ?
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Our approach starts from Palaite ḫaapnaš (=Hittite ḫapaš) “river” and is based on a linguistic Eurasiatic survey originating in J. Greenberg. He posits that *no (*nV) is a marker establishing the membership of the macrofamily and that ḫapaš stems from a term applying to water. To justify these developments, our study focuses on a pre-celtic term onno “river” analyzed as *(H)on-spring + *nV in order to try to show that a structure *dh-(h)on-, with the *dh- prefix, after a linguistic break, went into the making of an Indo-European root (“to flow”). The pair ḫaapnaš/ ḫapaš is then considered within the complex history of the Anatolian genitive, at this stage of our approach we resort to a former membership case reshaped in various ways into the nominative when some verb forms, coming after Eurasiatic verbo-nominals, appeared in Indo-European. The analysis of Eurasiatic and Indo-European is completed with a comparative discussion of Lithuanian upė “river”.
 
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L’Assyrie en Syrie et en Anatolie au début de l’empire : cultures en conflit, cultures en contact
M.-G. MASETTI-ROUAULT, S. SALMON. — During their expansion toward West, the kings of early Neo-Assyrian period met, in Northern Mesopotamia and in Southern Anatolia, Luwian and Aramean populations, who had then established prosperous States along the main caravan roads developing trade and commercial exchanges all over the Middle East…
 
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Les Hittites en Syrie du Nord : contacts, influences et échanges
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In the14th and 13th centuries BC, after Šuppiluliuma I conquered the North Syrian region, the Hittite state ruled over the small kingdoms of North-Syria ; diplomatic and commercial relations, as well as cultural exchanges, became frequent, with effects on the social organization, on the legal institutions, on the scribal and artistic traditions and on the local Syrian customs. In this contribution, some exemplary cases are examined.
 
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Les Hittites dans les sources mésopotamiennes
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The article focuses on the Mesopotamian image of the Hittites from the Old Assyrian to the Neo-Assyrian period. The source material is studied and a history of contacts between the Anatolians/Hittites and the Mesopotamians is reconstructed. Special attention is given to the expedition of Mursili I against Babylonia and to the contacts between the Neo-Assyrian kings and the Neo-Hittite states in southeastern Anatolia.
 
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Milet entre Mycéniens et Hittites
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In the second half of the 15th century B.C., the Mycenaeans replaced the Minoans in Miletus, as shown by archaeological evidence and Hittite records that mention Miletus, under the name Millawanda, and the land of Aḫḫijawā. Miletus was then in the political orbit of the king of Aḫḫijawā and its relations with the Hittites were often hostile. However, at the end of the 13th century, the town passed under the control of the Hittite king. According to Homer, Miletus was a Carian city during the time of the Trojan War.
 
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La réforme de la langue hittite au XIIIe siècle av. J.C. : instrument au service de la construction de l’identité
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In 13th century BCE Hittite texts some words are marked with special signs called 'gloss-wedges'.  It is generally assumed that they were used to mark words of foreign, mostly Luwian origin.  However, a semantic analysis of the relevant vocabulary reveals that if the words had been marked because of their foreign origin, this would seem to have been a form of extreme linguistic purism serving nationalistic purposes.  Because of the lack of evidence for nationalistic tendencies in Hittite texts and Hittite culture in general this seems highly implausible.   On the other hand, a thorough investigation of contexts in which words with gloss-wedges appear gives reasons to assume that words were marked with gloss-wedges for ideological purposes, i.e. to shape moral identity and enforce a proper code of conduct in the last decades of the Hittite Empire
 
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Postface. Ethnogenèse et identité dans l’Anatolie de la période hittite ou : Qui étaient les Hittites ?
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J. KLINGER, « Postface. Ethnogenèse et identité dans l’Anatolie de la période hittite ou : Qui étaient les Hittites ? », dans I. KLOCK-FONTANILLE, S. BIETTLOT et K. MESHOUB (éd.), Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de colloque, Université de Limoges 27-28 novembre 2008, Brussels, 2010, p. 227-238.
 
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Synthèse des travaux de la cellule 10
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YANTE J.-M., « Synthèse des travaux de la cellule 10 », in Actes des VIIe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Belgique. Congrès d'Ottignies – Louvain-la-Neuve, 26-28 août 2004, Brussels, 2007, p. 998-1005.

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9,50 €
La guerre 1914-1918 des soldats belges à travers leurs écrits non publiés. Analyse de leur expérience de guerre et des facteurs de résistance

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AMEZ B., « La guerre 1914-1918 des soldats belges à travers leurs écrits non publiés. Analyse de leur expérience de guerre et des facteurs de résistance », in Actes des VIIe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Belgique. Congrès d'Ottignies – Louvain-la-Neuve, 26-28 août 2004, Brussels, 2007, p. 10-15.

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9,50 €
Les tours et tourelles jointes aux maisons fortes du Bas Moyen Âge. Analyse de leurs fonctions à partir de l’exemple de Fosteau

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CHEVALIER A., « Les tours et tourelles jointes aux maisons fortes du Bas Moyen Âge. Analyse de leurs fonctions à partir de l’exemple de Fosteau », in Actes des VIIe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Belgique. Congrès d'Ottignies – Louvain-la-Neuve, 26-28 août 2004, Brussels, 2007, p. 16-25.

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9,50 €
Stratégies de chasse et mode de vie des hommes de Néanderthal. Vivre et subsister dans la grotte de Saint-Marcel (Ardèche)

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DAUJEARD C., « Stratégies de chasse et mode de vie des hommes de Néanderthal. Vivre et subsister dans la grotte de Saint-Marcel (Ardèche) », in Actes des VIIe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Belgique. Congrès d'Ottignies – Louvain-la-Neuve, 26-28 août 2004, Brussels, 2007, p. 26-32.

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9,50 €
Le contenu caché des plans Popp : application à la Commune d’Ottignies

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GILOT E., « Le contenu caché des plans Popp : application à la Commune d’Ottignies », in Actes des VIIe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Belgique. Congrès d'Ottignies – Louvain-la-Neuve, 26-28 août 2004, Brussels, 2007, p. 33-37.

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9,50 €
Quelques aspects de la bienfaisance dans le Sud-Luxembourg à la fin de l’Ancien Régime : l’importance de l’abbaye d’Orval
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GOBIN M., « Quelques aspects de la bienfaisance dans le Sud-Luxembourg à la fin de l’Ancien Régime : l’importance de l’abbaye d’Orval », in Actes des VIIe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Belgique. Congrès d'Ottignies – Louvain-la-Neuve, 26-28 août 2004, Brussels, 2007, p. 38-53.

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9,50 €
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