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Le journal de Jean‑François Bernardy (1749-1842)

by Jean-Louis Van Belle. — Book in French. Im Frühjahr 1794 wurde der Priester Jean-François (de) BERNARDY (1749-1842) mit einem Kollegen nach Obersachsen entsandt, um dort Spenden für französische Priester, die infolge der Wirren der Französischen Revolution in die Schweiz ausgewandert waren, zu beschaffen. Diese Reise dauerte von Mai 1794 bis November 1795. Während dieser Zeit führte er ein Tagebuch, das bis heute verborgen blieb…

Table of contents | MapIndex || In Deutsch

 

39,00 €
Delphes avant le sanctuaire d'Apollon

by Marjolaine Carles. —  Book in French. At the origins of the worship of Apollo at Delphi, the problem of continuity or rupture arises between the Mycenaean and the Greek world. How can religious practices and beliefs of a bygone era be restored on a site without any trace of writing? (Details)
 

29,00 €
Manuel de critique textuelle du Nouveau Testament
Chr.-B. Amphoux (dir.). — Book in French.

Details | The authors | Table of contents

39,00 €
Théophane de Sigriani le confesseur( 759‑818)

by Panayotis Yannopoulos. — Book in French. Nobody can know Byzantium or its history without knowing the Chronicle of Theophanes. This work marks the transition from a historical time “before Theophanes” to a time “after Theophanes” in Byzantine historiography… (Details)

39,50 €
L'Évangile arabe selon saint Luc. Texte du VIIIe siècle, copié en 897
by Samir Arbache. — Book in French (Details)

27,00 €
Les fils d'Antara. Représentations des Africains dans la fiction arabe contemporaine (1914-2011)
by Xavier Luffin. — Book in French (Details)
36,00 €
L'évangile de Marc en hébreu
by Agnès Tichit. — Book in French. Une étude qui porte sur la confrontation de deux traductions en hébreu de l’évangile de Marc… (Details)

47,50 €
Ostad Elahi et la traditionDroit, philosophie et mystique en Iran
by Soudabeh Marin. — Book in French. Ce premier volume est consacré à la généalogie, à la biographie et à la philosophie du droit d’Ostad Elahi. L'auteur a reçu le prix Bordin de l'Académie française pour cet ouvrage… (Details)
42,50 €
Ostad Elahi et la modernitéDroit, philosophie et magistrature en Iran
par Soudabeh Marin. — Book in French. Ce second volume est consacré à la carrière professionnelle d’Ostad Elahi au sein du Ministère de la Justice en Iran. L'auteur a reçu le prix Bordin de l'Académie française pour cet ouvrage… (Details)

42,50 €
Routes et parcours mythiques. Des textes à l'archéologie

Proceedings of the Septième colloque international d'anthropologie du monde indo-européen et de mythologie comparée
Edited by Alain Meurant, 336 pages, 2011. Available.

Le héros laisse sur les lieux qu’il traverse des marques qui peuvent prendre la forme d’un culte, d’un temple, d’un rituel, d’une coutume ou d’une cité dont il instaure les fondements. C’est à explorer les textes qui content le périple de quelques-unes des plus grandes figures héroïques indo-européennes et aux traces archéologiques qui balisent leurs routes que s’emploient ici quelques-uns des meilleurs spécialistes des différentes cultures du domaine pris en compte.

Details | Other papers
35,00 €
Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien
Collectif. — Book in French. Comment les Hittites, ce peuple de langue indo-européenne, qui a vécu en Anatolie au second millénaire avant J.-C., a-t-il construit son identité ? Il s'agit ici d'étudier les Hittites non pas de leur point de vue – comme il est habituel de le faire –, mais du point de vue des «autres», de ceux qui ont contribué à la construction de cette identité. Pour ne citer qu'eux : les Hourrites ont eu une grande influence dans le domaine religieux, les Louvites sont à l'origine des hiéroglyphes hittito-louvites… (Details)
35,00 €
Nazianze et les Grégoire. Réflexions d'un helléniste retraité

32,00 €
Dina (Genèse 34). Sexe, mensonges et idéaux
 
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L'évangile de Marc. Un original hébreu ?
 
60,00 €
En guise d’entrée en matière. Plurielles sont les voies du mythe, infini leur potentiel
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The Founders of Rome as a Sequence of Mythic Figures
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The subject of Rome’s origins is one where the discourses of comparative mythology and archaeology can interact, but such interaction has never been easy. In approaching the subject here from the mythological point of view, I shall not have space to advance the dialogue explicitly, but hope the discussion will be useful to those who do pursue it.
 
Le voyage involontaire de l’aurige Ratumena
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According to the legend, Ratumena was an Etruscan charioteer who won a race in the city of Veii but, after his victory, was dragged away by his horses, that brought the chariot to Rome, where they stopped in front of the Capitoline temple. This story seems to reflect the same pattern which appears in the Roman ritual of the equus October (horse of October) and the Indian asvamedha (sacrifice of an horse made by a king), i e the competition between different groups for the possession of an horse, whose scope is to provide one of these competitors with sovereignty.
 
Trésors et sépultures subaquatiques. Variations sur une légende perdue
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Investigation of a very ancient and widespread type of migratory legend which so far has not been taken into account in the systematic catalogues and international subject-indexes elaborated by specialists of folk-literature and mythology. The plot of these tales –the oldest known version of which seems to be Sumerian– usually concerns a dead king (or another charismatic character) who is buried, sometimes with his treasure, under the bed of a river, whose stream has been diverted and then reinstated so as to hide the place from discovery. The author discusses the origins of this oriental taletype and the successive meanings it assumes, especially when borrowed and recycled in indo-european contexts.
 
Ulysse et Télémaque, un parcours symbolique en termes de comparatisme
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Georges Dumézil has suggested that Ulysses’final struggle with the suitors is the equivalent of the destruction of Troy or the battle of Kurukshetra (Mahabharata). One can readily understand that two opposing forces encounter each other, each organised according to the hierarchy of the three Indo-European functions : 1 Odysseus against Antinous / 2 Telemachus against Eurymachus / 3 Eumaeus and Philoitius against Ctessipus, Polybus and Agelaus. Seen from this point of view, I consider the different adventures of Odysseus as stages in his downfall, the last being his experience with Calypso whose name is the symbol of nothingness, before his recovery (symbolised by the gifts of the Phaeacians) which is essential in view of the catastrophic state of the kingdom of Ithaca, weakened by too great a number of suitors. Symbolically, the Telemachia corresponds to the search for and the gradual reappearance of the god Lleu in Wales, otherwise known as Lugh in Ireland. Structurally speaking, the different parts of Ithaca are the same as the Indo-European provinces of Celtic Ireland.
 
El mito de fundación de Lugdunum. Ensayo de lectura estructural
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Le mythe de fondation de Lugdunum, que nous lisons dans le traité du Ps-Plutarque, Sur les fleuves, a été étudié traditionnellement sans tenir compte de son rapport avec l’autre partie du texte sur le fleuve Arar ni avec l’ensemble de l’œuvre. Une étude de G. Charrière et A. Audin nous mène vers les possibilités qu’offre une lecture structurale du récit. Les deux parties du récit étant dominées par l’alose (un poisson) et des corbeaux, des espèces migratoires dans la région de Lyon où elles sont présentes pendant la canicule pour les premières et en hiver pour les seconds. Ceci, relié à d’autres traits anatomiques et éthologiques de ces animaux, permet de soutenir que le mythe s’inspire de certaines des caractéristiques remarquables du calendrier celtique (celui de Coligny a été trouvé à 100 km au nord de Lyon) comme éléments structurants le récit de fondation.
 
Le dieu celtique Lugus, le soleil et l'organisation du territoire
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The aim of this study is to show the links between the Celtic god Lugus and landscape organization. We underline the important part of the light from sunrise – which has well known connexions with Lugus – in the process used by the Celts for their spatial orientation. By revealing the setting of a landmark, orientation constitutes a preliminary and essential step before the establishment of a space which will be intended to be inhabited by people. The analysis of Gaulish archaeological facts and Irish medieval tales perfectly highlights the relation of Mercury and Lug to strategic places which were used for the development of a human community: places of assembly, places where cities or provinces were founded, places on hilltop or located on a border, shrines, roads; moreover, some of them are frequently found in a same place, which demonstrates a real cohesion in the process of organizing landscape.
 
The Passage "trans Tiberim" and the Debt Bondage in Early Rome
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En droit romain primitif, le débiteur était obligé à payer ses créances avant la fin de l’année en cours. La garantie de la dette se réalisait avec l’aide du serment aux dieux. Aux temps historiques, ces dieux étaient Jupiter et Saturne, apparentés aux dieux védiques Mitra et Varuṇa. En cas de non-paiement de la dette, le débiteur est considéré comme un violateur de serment, qui ne pouvait se trouver où se trouvait le dieu offensé par lui. Le débiteur devait quitter le territoire romain à la fin de l’année. S’il ne le faisait pas volontairement, il était vendu en Étrurie, où il perdait son statut civil et sa liberté. La procédure de condamnation des débiteurs insolvables de la loi des XII Tables montre que le chemin qui mène au Tibre était analogue au voyage qui mène vers l’autre monde, au règne de la mort.
 
La figure du héros dans le monde anatolien antique
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In this contribution, the reader finds a short analysis of the Hittite-Luwian conception of the hastali- “the Hero”, an official title dedicated to the Hittite kings during the Hittite Empire.
 
Culture and Nature, Road and Wilderness. The Ecology of Myth
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This paper looks at human attempts to understand and then to “order” the natural world, with special attention to “the road through the wood.” The following topics come into view: the (European) Wood and (vs.) formal shapes (“natural” pathway and purposeful, communicative road, also the “sacred way” and the post-road or military road); surrounding ‘wild’ space and its inhabitants (wild animals, supernatural beings, feral humans, possibly the Daemonic, certainly the Sacred); modes, companies, vehicles (travel, pilgrimage, mercantile efforts); blocks and barriers (river, ford, bridge, ferry); the face of hospitality (the inn – and the enemy/stranger/guest); goals and symbolic nodes (here and there, mobility and stability, the market’s meanings); finality (time, the ‘Romantic’ road – and the Road to Death. Sources include Scandinavian and Celtic narratives, folktales, and insights drawn from D. Bynum and V. Turner, among others (including J. R. R. Tolkien).
 
Le Troiae lusus, le schéma du Labyrinthe et l’Octaétéride
= Paper =
 
The diagram known as that “of the labyrinth” is not specific to the Cretan world nor to Knossos. Attested from the second millenium from Syria to the British isles, it seems that it might represent an octaeteris or period of eight years, corresponding to 99 months in the lunar calendar. The end of this cycle and the beginning of the following one gave rise to regeneration rituals, differing according to the region, whose souvenir survives notably in the legend of the Minotaur and in the Romans’ Troiae Lusus.
 
Andrea Carandini, Romulus et les dema. Naissance, diffusion et ravages d’un produit ethnographique toxique
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The concept of dema is used in ethnography to designate a particular category of primordial beings in paleo-cultivator cultures. Certain Italian scholars have used it in their research on the origins of Rome, specifically when referring to Romulus. We might mention in particular A. Brelich, working in 1960, and, more recently, the archaeologist A. Carandini. The current paper retraces the history of the concept since its first appearance in 1922 up to the present day : how it has evolved over the decades, and how scholars have frequently applied it without sufficient rigour, generating between them a series of false hypotheses and propositions. In the interests of interdisciplinarity, it might be desirable to stray into the field of ethnography, but it is imperative to proceed with method. This requirement has not been respected in research done on the origins of Rome, an area in which the demas of ethnology have absolutely no role to play.
 
Marginalité et souveraineté. Des chemins de traverse aux allées du pouvoir
= Paper =
 
We will follow the Masters of paths. They are Pushan and Aryaman in India, Pan and Hermes in Ancient Greece; others are Scandinavian such as the god Ullr or Palnatoki, or anglo-saxon such as Robin Hood. Their tracks lead us from the rural or forest world to which they belong to the surroundings of the sovereign. They wander around him either to serve him and save his throne, or to betray him, replace him and even kill him. Sometimes, indo-european myth melts with History when for instance Antoine as Lupercal tries to crown Ceasar.
 
De Jean de l’Ours à Persée ou de quelques modalités de la disjonction
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The tale of Jean de l'ours (Jean of the Bear) is like the Bird Nester myth , but in a reversed position. Both heroes experience a vertical disjunction, the first one downwards, the second one upwards. Now, some north Amerindian versions of the Bird Nester have exactly the same structure as the Perseus myth. But in this case the story develops horizontally. The disjunction, which disappeared with verticality, is reached in a different way : by crossing the ocean.
 
L’usurpation de la souveraineté divine dans les mythologies scandinave et celte
= Paper =
 
Scandinavian and Celtic myths propose close similar stories about two temporary losses of his royal power by the king of the gods, i.e. Odin, Math and Nuadha.
 
L’exégèse théologique du Mahābhārata. Le système symbolique des amśāvatarana
= Paper =
 
This article does not at all deal with the controverted ideological theory of the ‘three functions’ such as used by Stig Wikander and Georges Dumézil in their interpretation of the Indian epics, but examines the basis of what could be called their ‘theological exegesis’ of the Mahābhārata: the fact that the main heroes of the story are symbolically presented as the ‘partial incarnations’ of the gods, born on earth with a ‘part’ of themselves. Avoiding the unsolvable problems of some (Indo-European, Indo-Iranian or even Vedic) reconstructions proposed by Dumézil, this essay underlines the importance of taking into account the aṃśāvataraṇa list at first as it is given in the text, itself enlightened by a significant passage from its ‘supplement’ (viz. the Harivaṃśa), since it provides us with a specific pantheon existing at the time of the elaboration of the epics. In that respect, the ‘theological exegesis’ of Dumézil will probably remain his most important contribution to the understanding of the religious meaning of the Sanskrit epics in its oldest state.
 
The Roman Regifugium. Myth and Ritual of the King's Journey Beyond the Boundary
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February 24 annually brings the archaic Roman ritual of the Regifugium, the ‘Flight of the King’. Little information survives concerning the rite in classical sources: Plutarch, for example, states simply that the rex offered a sacrifice in the Comitium and immediately fled away (Quaest. Rom. 63). In this investigation I argue that the Regifugium is a Roman ritual expression of a broader Indo-European mythic motif that concerns traumatic flight beyond the borderlands of society – a flight that introduces societal disorder; the figure whose retreat is marked, however, is a representative not of the sovereign realm but of the priestly. A second ritual realization of the motif is observed on March 14, when one designated as Mamurius Veturius ‘the crazed one of Mars’ is driven from Rome. The setting of the rituals at the boundary of the old Roman year is a temporal expression of the theme of a falling into disorder associated with the flights; order is restored with the onset of the new year and the celebration of associated rituals.
 
De l’influence des ‘Traités de vassalité’ hittites sur la composition du livre du deutéronome. Évaluation d’une théorie classique en exégèse biblique
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The hypothesis of an influence of the hittite vassal treaties on the biblical text has been proposed by Mendenhall in 1954, whoses studies dealt with the link between hittite texts and the Covenant narratives and laws in Ex 19-24, and later by Weinfeld who tried to demonstrate the influence of both akkadian legal texts and hittites treaties on the structure of the book of Deuteronomy. The recent research about the composition of Deuteronomy lead to the conclusion that the narrative and legal texts of this book belong to different stages of its composition, and so call in question Weinfeld’s hypothesis. Nevertheless, there could have been an indirect cultural influence of the hittite treaties on the biblical texts, and of the assyrian litterature as well, as the litterary analysis can find similarities in the concepts and in the vocabulary.
 
9,50 €
Vision de l’autre à travers le voile du passé, vision de l’ailleurs ; entre oubli et mémoire éclatée, entre Histoire et mythologie : le cas hourro-hittite confronté aux légendes des Éthiopiens-kushites
= Paper =
 
Few documents depict the various elements shaping the Hittite empire of the second millenium. The example of the Hurrians, who were the Hittites' foe at first before turning into their civilization masters, is relevant in this regard. Their symbiosis with the Hittites, which justifies the «Hurro-Hittites » designation, makes it difficult to uncover any alterity between them. This is all the more true from the perspective of the classical and biblical testimony. If the Hittite and Mitannian empires seem to have faded into oblivion, scholars of the modern era have raised some misquoted historical accounts. Thereby, it is arguable that other peoples from the Antiquity shared connections not yet identified, or not formally differentiated. In this respect, a large amount of evidence led my research towards Greek and Ethiopian texts, and the Kouchites of the bible, as anachronous as this may seem.
 
9,50 €
Amour, musique et poésie au gré des relations égypto-hittites. Réflexions autour d’une statuette de harpiste ‘hittite’ de Médinet el-Gourob/Miour
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The Hittite-Egyptian relationships are not being tackled here based on the events that have marked international history. We will be looking at a little statue, which embodies a humble protagonist of the relations established between Egypt and Anatolia. This is the statue of a musician labelled as "Hittite", which was discovered in Médinet en-Gourob, the royal residence and harem where Asian spouses of the pharaoh are thought to have resided.
 
9,50 €
L’apport hourrite dans l’élaboration de la culture hittite du XIIIe siècle av. J.-C.
= Paper =
 
In the first part of this contribution the reader finds an historical aspect relating to the great moments of the Hurrian civilization . An information is added about the progress of the decipherment of the Hurrian language. The second part deals with the influence of the Hurrians during the 13st century B.C. especially over the Hittite language and the official religion of the Hittite Empire.
 
9,50 €
Milet entre Mycéniens et Hittites
= Paper =
 
In the second half of the 15th century B.C., the Mycenaeans replaced the Minoans in Miletus, as shown by archaeological evidence and Hittite records that mention Miletus, under the name Millawanda, and the land of Aḫḫijawā. Miletus was then in the political orbit of the king of Aḫḫijawā and its relations with the Hittites were often hostile. However, at the end of the 13th century, the town passed under the control of the Hittite king. According to Homer, Miletus was a Carian city during the time of the Trojan War.
 
9,50 €
La réforme de la langue hittite au XIIIe siècle av. J.C. : instrument au service de la construction de l’identité
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In 13th century BCE Hittite texts some words are marked with special signs called 'gloss-wedges'.  It is generally assumed that they were used to mark words of foreign, mostly Luwian origin.  However, a semantic analysis of the relevant vocabulary reveals that if the words had been marked because of their foreign origin, this would seem to have been a form of extreme linguistic purism serving nationalistic purposes.  Because of the lack of evidence for nationalistic tendencies in Hittite texts and Hittite culture in general this seems highly implausible.   On the other hand, a thorough investigation of contexts in which words with gloss-wedges appear gives reasons to assume that words were marked with gloss-wedges for ideological purposes, i.e. to shape moral identity and enforce a proper code of conduct in the last decades of the Hittite Empire
 
9,50 €
Postface. Ethnogenèse et identité dans l’Anatolie de la période hittite ou : Qui étaient les Hittites ?
= Paper =

J. KLINGER, « Postface. Ethnogenèse et identité dans l’Anatolie de la période hittite ou : Qui étaient les Hittites ? », dans I. KLOCK-FONTANILLE, S. BIETTLOT et K. MESHOUB (éd.), Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de colloque, Université de Limoges 27-28 novembre 2008, Brussels, 2010, p. 227-238.
 
9,50 €
Quelques aspects de la bienfaisance dans le Sud-Luxembourg à la fin de l’Ancien Régime : l’importance de l’abbaye d’Orval
 = Paper =

GOBIN M., « Quelques aspects de la bienfaisance dans le Sud-Luxembourg à la fin de l’Ancien Régime : l’importance de l’abbaye d’Orval », in Actes des VIIe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de Belgique. Congrès d'Ottignies – Louvain-la-Neuve, 26-28 août 2004, Brussels, 2007, p. 38-53.

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9,50 €
Genval-les-Eaux, un parc immobilier né au XIXe siècle, ses particularités architecturales et idéologiques

9,50 €
Une thèse et ses critiques : La naissance du Purgatoire de Jacques Le Goff

9,50 €
La vie après les morts de 14-18. Aspects religieux de monuments aux morts belges de la Grande Guerre

9,50 €
Deux chroniques cisterciennes de la fin du Moyen Âge : Villers-en-Brabant et les Dunes

9,50 €
Abbaye de Stavelot. Le tombeau de Remacle

9,50 €
Le culte de Saint-Job à Wezemaal aux XVe et XVIe siècles

9,50 €
Théories de la communication et herméneutique du réveil protestant wallon au XIXe siècle

9,50 €
Les taulets de Maître Gilles le Cat. Attributions dans le domaine de la sculpture funéraire (Hainaut, XVe siècle)

9,50 €
De la rumeur à la croyance : refuser la mort. À propos de Charles le Téméraire

9,50 €
La JOC et l’Église : de l’adhésion à la contestation (1961-1974)

9,50 €
Lorsque Jumet réinvente le prêtre : l’expérience du séminaire Cardinal Cardijn 1967-1973

9,50 €
Georges Hobé (1854-1936) : “ce sont les nécessités du dedans qui commandent les aspects du dehors et qui les expliquent”

9,50 €
D’Omalius d’Halloy : un scientifique très éclairé

9,50 €
Restitution de la méridienne dite “de Quetelet” en la Cathédrale des Saints Michel et Gudule à Bruxelles

9,50 €
L’aventure spatiale dans le journal Tintin, de l’alunissage d’Hergé à celui de Neil Armstrong

9,50 €
Le moine Léonard de Saint-Jacques (†1401) et son œuvre médicale

9,50 €
Sur le rôle du prévôt dans l’administration canoniale du Moyen Age : l’exemple de la cathédrale Saint-Lambert de Liège

9,50 €
Il bagno-castigo dei santi Cosma e Damiano a Riace e il rito del territoriu a Monasterace. Due culti rurali della magnogreca Kaulonía ?
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M. BIDOTTI, « Il bagno-castigo dei santi Cosma e Damiano a Riace e il rito del territoriu a Monasterace. Due culti rurali della magnogreca Kaulonía ? », Res Antiquae 10, Bruxelles, 2013.
 
9,50 €
Ὡς χιὼν ἡ Ῥώμη πάντα καλύπτει. Fonti e categorie storiografiche sull’identità romana
= Paper =
 
M. CAVALIERI, « Ὡς χιὼν ἡ Ῥώμη πάντα καλύπτει. Fonti e categorie storiografiche sull’identità romana », Res Antiquae 10, Bruxelles, 2013.
 
9,50 €
Crue, semailles et récolte. Expressions de douleur et de joie dans les textes de l’ancienne Égypte
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A. COLAZILLI, « Crue, semailles et récolte. Expressions de douleur et de joie dans les textes de l’ancienne Égypte », Res Antiquae 10, Bruxelles, 2013.
 
9,50 €
Amministratori e funzionari nell’Anatolia ittita. Su alcuni aspetti della formazione delle parole in una "Corpussprache"
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P. DARDANO, « Amministratori e funzionari nell’Anatolia ittita. Su alcuni aspetti della formazione delle parole in una "Corpussprache" », Res Antiquae 10, Bruxelles, 2013.
 
9,50 €
De quelques dieux hittites liés à la ruralité
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R. LEBRUN, « De quelques dieux hittites liés à la ruralité », Res Antiquae 10, Bruxelles, 2013.
 
9,50 €
La ruralité dans les réalités de la vie après la mort physique en Égypte pharaonique. Enquêtes dans les Textes des Sarcophages et le Livre des Morts (2160-1085 av. J.-C.)
= Paper =
 
M.-A. MOMBO, « La ruralité dans les réalités de la vie après la mort physique en Égypte pharaonique. Enquêtes dans les Textes des Sarcophages et le Livre des Morts(2160-1085 av. J.-C.) », Res Antiquae 10, Bruxelles, 2013.
 
9,50 €
Deux fragments hittites tardifs et leur intérêt
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R. LEBRUN, « Deux fragments hittites tardifs et leur intérêt », Res Antiquae 11, Brussels, 2014, p. 167-174.
 
9,50 €
Dédale a-t-il des traits varuniens ?
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M. MEULDER, « Dédale a-t-il des traits varuniens ? », Res Antiquae 11, Brussels, 2014, p. 175-184.
 
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À propos d’Isis et du cerf : en Occident, aussi !
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J.-L. PODVIN, « À propos d’Isis et du cerf : en Occident, aussi ! »,  Res Antiquae 11 Brussels, 2014, p. 185-188.
 
9,50 €
À l’origine d’une dialectique nouvelle. L’offrande et le tribut dans la pensée de Judas le Galiléen
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M. GIRARDIN, « À l’origine d’une dialectique nouvelle. L’offrande et le tribut dans la pensée de Judas le Galiléen », Res Antiquae 12, Brussels, 2015.
 
9,50 €
Le terme "to-pa-po-ro-i" en mycénien. Un état de la question
= Paper =
 
J. HENRY, « Le terme to-pa-po-ro-i en mycénien. Un état de la question », Res Antiquae 12, Brussels, 2015.
 
9,50 €
L’univers sonore dans les Tables Eugubines
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J.-CL. LACAM, « L’univers sonore dans les Tables Eugubines », Res Antiquae 12, Brussels, 2015.
 
9,50 €
Panthéons locaux et panthéon d’État dans l’Anatolie hittite
= Paper =
 
R. LEBRUN, « Panthéons locaux et panthéon d’État dans l’Anatolie hittite », Res Antiquae 12, Brussels, 2015.
 
9,50 €
Le pays du dieu de l’Orage dans l’inscription du Südburg
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É. VAN QUICKELBERGHE, « Le pays du dieu de l’Orage dans l’inscription du Südburg », Res Antiquae 12, Brussels, 2015.
 
9,50 €
Sagesse et genre. Une approche biblique
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by Stéphanie S. ANTHONIOZ. — This article aims at proposing a study of wisdom and more precisely of sages, both men and women, be they called ḥākām or ḥakāmâ, and reflect upon the question of gender. A brief overview of biblical references seems to show the lack of concern for women sages. However many are they who have been held in high esteem for their wise behavior as the woman from Teqoa (2 Sam 14:1-24), the woman from Avel-Beth-Maaka (2 Sam 20:14-21), Rahab, the prostitute (Jos 2:1-24), Avigaïl, the beautiful woman (1 Sam 25:2-42) and also the woman who killed Abimelek (Jg 9:53). Their…
 
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Observations on the Lyric Structure of Hurrian Songs and the Fragment KBo 35.39
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by Dennis R.M. CAMPBELL. — Les difficultés rencontrées lors de la traduction des chants hurrites d’Ougarit sont nombreuses, mais on peut faire plusieurs observations sur le style de ces chants. En explorant leur structure lyrique, on dégage deux styles : chants avec paroles continues et chants avec refrains…
 
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Prolégomènes à l’étude des relations de pouvoir entre les entités animées dans KTU 1.1-6. Cadre relationnel de ʿAnatu et Baʿlu
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by Vanessa JULOUX. — It has been commonly understood that Baʿlu and ʿAnatu are sometimes lovers, sometimes brother and sister, sometimes both. Thanks to fallibilism, new fields of investigations have now become possible, thereby challenging any deterministic dogma. By combining pragmatics (utterance comprehension in context), philosophy of action (motivation and intentionality), empiricism and deontic power (rights and obligations), I investigate…
 
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"De morte in Anatolia antiqua" (I)
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by René LEBRUN, Étienne VAN QUICKELBERGHE. — In this short contribution the lector will find an approach of the Hittite terminology and…
 
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Camillus. Une transposition du grec "Gamilios" ?
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by Marcel MEULDER. — The word ‘Camillus’ refers to a servant of the flamen Dialis and to an young taking part to a formal wedding; it derives through the Etruscan language from the Greek word gamίlioV meaning “nuptial”. In his De lingua Latina, Varro gives to this word camillus a false etymology; he establishes a link to the Greek word kάsmiloV that refers in the Samothracian mysteries to Hermes as a servant of the Great Gods. By this false etymology, Varro…
 
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« Digne d’en rire ». Une célébration des Mithrakāna devant Cyrus et Alexandre les Grands ?
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by Gilles COURTIEU. — The celebration of the Mithrakāna, known today as Mehragān, is the second in relevance in the Mazdaean calendar. Yet heretofore evidence about it was scarce and scattered, so very little was known as regards the nature of such cult and its connection to the Avestic texts…
 
Fields, Mounds-Islands and Caves for the Nile Crocodiles. From Ethology to Religion in Roman Egypt
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by Pierre P. KOEMOTH. — In the Nile Valley, the crocodiles behaviour was strongly conditioned by environment factors like the room temperature and the water level of the river fluctuating between raising and subsiding flood…
 
Rituale Hethaeorum
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by René LEBRUN. — In this article, the lector finds a short study of fragments dating from the final period of the Hittite Empire (end of the 13th century B.C.)…
 
Darius II Ochos et les quatre fonctions indo-européennes. Valère maxime, faits et dits mémorables, IX 2 Ext. 6
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by Marcel MEULDER. — Valerius Maximus, by citing one of the executions by which Darius Ochus, Cyrus’ and Artaxerxes’ father, subjects his political opponents, gives a new perspective to the Iranian religion during the last quarter of the fifth century b. C…
 
Trois divinités tyriennes dans le récit de I Rois 18
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The Storm-God invokated by the prophets of Baal at I Kings 18 has been identified with Baal Shamīm or Milqart. The dance performed by the prophets, Elijah’s ironic references to some business, travel or sleep of this silent God and the presence of the prophets of Asherah allow us to see in this text a polemic against the three main tyrian deities : Baal Shamīm, Ashtart and Milqart.
 
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Propos sur la naissance de la notion de sphère dans l’Antiquité
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the Greek notion of sphere is part of a process of continuity / rupture which goes back to Sumer. There, the cosmos becomes in astronomy the celestial sphere, known under two aspects: that of the theory where, although absent from the lexicon, we can deduce from two tangent circles which wrap it; and that of the practice where is used the hemispherical sundial, named scaphe by the Greeks; at the same time, the "totality" is, on the clay tablet, a perfect disk / ring. In Greece, the mathematical sphere, which assumes a perfect shape and acquires for the human thought a remarkable efficiency, also ensues from the vision of a cosmos influenced by Mesopotamia and feeds, in the diverse stages of its elaboration, contributions of the Babylonian astronomy.
 
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D’Horus à Pharaon et au peuple égyptien. La symbolique du dieu-fils dans la civilisation de l’Égypte pharaonique (2778-1085 av. J.-C.)
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According to the osirian myth, the man (Osiris) marries her sister (Isis) and it is the child (Horus) stemming from this union who becomes the heir apparent. It thus seems clearly that the son (Horus) becomes a god-son intended to govern Egypt, ground of the gods. The symbolism of the god-son indicates that in the country of Pharaoh, the power is above all intended for the male child, and that the sisters come to give evidence that it is indeed about a justifiable child. The son who is placed on the Egyptian throne has to be a god-son, because Egypt, being the property of the gods, the only ones of the gods-son are authorized to insure the royal load.
 
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Le bestiaire des princes clients du Proche-Orient romain :  animaux symboliques et propagande (Ier s. av. J.-C. - Ier s. apr. J.-C.)
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The Commagenian, Nabataean and Iturean princes, and even Herod the rex iudaicus, used the image of the eagle as a symbol of their authority. However, the meaning of these eagles was different according to the context. Other images of animals appeared in the iconography of the near-eastern “friends of the Romans”: horses, dromedaries and also a symbolic and zodiacal bestiary in Commagene and Pontus.
 
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L'essor de l'Assyrie et la fragilité des normes politiques
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This essay explores the dynamic relationship between political events and poltical ideology through a study of Assyria’s place within the family of great powers at the end of the Bronze Age. Focus is placed on the Bronze Age convention of treating international relations in terms of kinship. By tracking Assyria’s rise to power in the 14th and 13th centuries B.C. it is possible to identify moments of crisis in the reigning ideology of royal brotherhood and hence gain a sharper appreciation of the fragile nature of Bronze Age political norms.
 
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De l'or pour les dieux celtiques ?
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A. CAHEN-DELHAYE and J.-M. DOYEN, « De l’or pour les dieux celtiques ? », in DEMELENNE M. and DOCQUIER G. (dir.), Trésor ? / Trésor ! Archéologie au cœur de l'Europe, Brussels, 2014.
 
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Les symboles divins solaires hittites. Circulation ou invention ?
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During Antiquity, Men live everyday the constant presence of the sun. Therfore their lifestyle is influenced by the sunlight and its positive heat. It could explain the fact that the Sun God becomes one of the main divinities. However civilizations from diverse regions of the Ancient Near East perceive the Sun in the same way. The representation is it invented in each place? Or is it broadcast a culture to another ? This concern centred on Anatolia is the heart of this paper that will attempt to highlight different points of view of the symbolism of the Solar divinity.
 

 

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Plato Ikhwanianus. Retour sur le récit platonicien de l'anneau de Gygès dans l'encyclopédie des Frères de la Pureté
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In the 52nd and last epistle of the Brethren of Purity, one finds a passage which is a very faithful translation of Plato’s famous narrative about the ring of Gyges. Taking into account the literality of the translation, the size of the passage (about 30 lines) and the precision of the reference made to the original text, it may fairly be assumed that it is a unicum in the history of the transmission of Plato to the Arab world. The purpose of this paper is to take up again this issue and try to bring up some new elements to the discussion.
 

 

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Le Platon arabe et les Sabéens de Harran. La "voie diffuse" de la transmission du platonisme en terre d'Islam
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In the absence of integral and litteral Arabic translations of Plato’s dialogues, the transmission of Platonism in the Muslim world was an indirect one, passing through different channels such as medical works, doxographies and gnomologies. The complexity and relative obscurity of this ‘voie diffuse’, in which according to Pierre Thillet oral transmission played an important role, led to all kinds of hazardous speculations about the existence of a Platonic Academy among the “Sabaens” in Ḥarrān, which was supposed to be still in activity in the Xth century. This article proposes a critical analysis of one of the most quoted “evidences” for this theory: al-Mas‘ūdī’s report about a Platonic inscription he claims to have seen on the door-knocker of the maǧma‘ of the Sabaeans in Ḥarrān. Rather than proving the existence of a “Platonic Academy” there, al-Mas‘ūdī offers us an eloquent illustration of the way Platonism was transmitted in the Muslim world.
 

 

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La migration du savoir entre les communautés : le cas de la littérature arabe chrétienne
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This paper addresses the important phenomenon of contacts and influences between the various religious communities of the pre-modern Near East in the field of the written heritage, and more particularly in that of Christian Arabic literature. The introduction discusses several examples of such interchange, on the one hand, between the various Christian communities (Melkites, Syrians, Copts) and between various language traditions (Syriac, Armenian, Coptic, Arabic) and on the other hand, between Christian and Muslim intellectual environments. The main part of the paper investigates the textual similarities that can be detected in the works of Sulaymān al-Ġazzī, Melkite bishop of Ghazza in the the tenth and eleventh centuries A.D., and the famous Epistles of the Iḫwān al-Ṣafā’ (Brethren of Purity). Some preliminary suggestions are given for the question as to how such similarities might have come about.
 

 

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L’influence du traité "Les airs, les eaux et les lieux" d’Hippocrate chez les penseurs arabes du Moyen Âge
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In this paper, I want to show the influence of the hippocratic treatise On airs, waters, places ((Περὶ ἀέρων, ὑδάτων, τόπων) and Galen’s commentary in particular, on the arabic scientific literature. Of course, we find it in medicine but also in geography. In this field, the Galen’s commentary of hippocratic text determined the base of the theory of geographical determinism, giving a conceptual structure (physic and even physiological) to the influence of the man’s environment. The mediaeval thinkers applied this theory to the humanity and in this context, the hippocratic opposition between Schythians and Egyptians is replaced by the one between Turks and Egyptians or Slaves and Blacks. They used it also to explain the physical constitution and the ethics of a specific population.
 
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La mythologie ougaritique dans son cadre historique
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Scholarly opinion on the origins of Ugaritic mythology, in particularly the myths having to do with the storm deity Baʿlu, has varied considerably over the eighty some years since the discovery of these tablets. Traditional Mesopotamian sources were cited as parallels early on, then Amorite influence was posited.  Recently, the hypothesis of a Mesopotamian connection has been revived under a new form.  These varied explanations for a Levantine mythology showing similarities with other Near-Eastern mythologies, not to mention Aegean ones, will be passed rapidly in review and the peculiarities of the Ugaritic version will be emphasized.
 

 

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Transmission et vivacité des traditions céramiques locales durant l’occupation assyrienne. Le cas du bas Moyen-Euphrate syrien
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The excavations on the site of Tell Masaïkh (Syria) brought to light a ceramic material, dated the Iron Age II. His study allowed the identification of typologies belonging to the Neo-Assyrian tradition and others which are certainly local. These local traditions are indicative of the survival of an Aramaean society profoundly rooted in the valley of the Euphrates and resisting to the Assyrian absolutism. The existence and the vivacity of these cultural traditions give us a better articulated image of the Assyrian history, far from the ideological dimension characterizing the Assyrian royal inscriptions.
 
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Entre Rome, Babylone et les Indes. Bardésane, stoïcien universaliste
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About 218 AD, the Syrian author and nobleman Bardayṣan met with an Indian embassy, on its way to the Roman imperial court in the city of Emesa. We try to demonstrate that his report, strongly marked by his Stoic concepts about cultural identity and relativity, became the source of Greek and Arab knowledge about the Buddhists and the Brahmans, starting from his contemporary Philostrates to Abū ‘Īsā al-Warrāq and Ibn Zur‘a in the 10th Century.
 

 

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Euhemeros von Messene. Ökonomisches Denken in einer “Utopie” der hellenistischen Zeit
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Dans l’Écriture Sacrée de Evhémère le Messinien, conseiller du roi des Macédoniens, Cassandre décrit la situation socio-économique des îles de l’Océan indien, que lui-même a visitées. Les traits caractéristiques de la structure de la société et de l’économie des îles sont la répartition sociale du travail entre la population, l’évaluation positive du manoeuvre, ainsi que la politique économique centralisée et l’économie des incitations à la partie la plus productive de la population. Un passage souligne ce que possèdent les prêtres, lesquels exercent le pouvoir supérieur. Le travail de Evhémère, relevant du genre littéraire politique “mytho-historique” (Staatsroman) des temps hellénistiques, appartient à la catégorie du mirror for princes, qui aboutit à projeter sur le prince la conception de la société idéale.
 
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Néron et le De clementia de Sénèque, racine ou rupture ?
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At the same time Seneca is the thinker of the government over which the last prince Julio-claudian reigns, and the thinker of the « new » political designation should thus be given to translate the concepts invented by him for Nero’s reign. The Nero’s tutor has been expressed through three types of discourse – one philosophical, one political and a satirical theatrical work. All of them consist of a continous meditation on power. One book emerges from this polyphonical and political discourse ; the De clementia, founding pillar of both the new princely ideology and the shift to the political action of the concepts embodied in the person of Nero. The De clementia gives the impression of being both consistent with the political values developed by the Ancients, and the thought of a new political era. Then, can we consider the De clementia as a root or, alternatively, as a rupture ?
 

 

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Crudelis tu quoque, mater. Sur un passage problématique du chant de Damon (Virgile, VIIIe Bucolique, v. 47-50)
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The verses 47-50 of the eighth Eclogue are very confusing: they refer to personae whose identity can’t be clearly established (crudelis mater, puer improbus). Besides, their inelegantly emphatic form lets us suppose a textual corruption. Yet, an intertextual approach helps us to shed light on the meaning of the passage: the portrayal of incest in Catullian Carmen 64 (v. 403-406) − which obviously influenced Virgil − is very close to Virgilian verses, and takes place in a similar context: the depiction of crimes induced by Love. Hence our hypothesis that the ‘cruel mother’ (crudelis mater) and the ‘indecent child’ (improbus puer) are mentioned as an anonymous exemplum of incest.
 

 

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Expulser l’autre. À propos d’un rituel ombrien (TI VI b 52 à VII a 2)
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The present paper aims at analyzing the description of an Umbrian ritual (TI VI b 52 to VII a 2). During this ritual, the foreigners are expelled from among the citizens of Iguvium. I examine how aggressive urges are unleashed, and on the same time controlled, in the frame of the religious performance.
 
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L’enfant de la  IVe Bucolique : un autre Zarathuštra ?
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Because the ambiguousness of the Latin grammar we don’t know who in Virgil’s 4th Eclogue (vv. 60 – 63) smiles (the child to his mother or the mother to her child). In order to work out this problem we compare the birth of the child and Zoroaster’s whose Virgil’s contemporaries knew the live, at least partly. We thus may say not only the child smiles to his mother, but also he is born in a religious environment, as when Zoroaster was born. In the 4th Eclogue, Virgil provides the child with some Zoroaster’s salient features, in order that the child has the qualities of the founder of the religion the Parthians, i.e. the Rome’ enemies, practise, and because the child will see the submission of the Parthians.
 
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Antiquité classique et tradition biblique en symbiose dans l’Anthologie Palatine, VIII, Epigrammes 12-23
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In order to situate the Anthologia Palatina in the cultural history of Europe, this article analyses twelve literary epitaphs of Gregory of Nazianzus : 1. Book XXIV, Epitaphia 12-23, texts and observations; 2. biographical order of the poems; 3. the junction of classical and patristic traditions; 4. private poetry.
 
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Byzance et le Mont Athos au Petit Palais à Paris
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Under the auspices of the municipality of Paris, the art and history of Byzantium have been presented to the public in an exhibition gathering together a large collection of treasures from Mount Athos at the Petit Palais in Paris from the 10th of April to the 5th of July 2009.
 
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Le rôle politique des femmes de la dynastie d’Hérode. Hérodiade, Cypros, Bérénice, Salomé
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What were the princesses' official functions in the herodian dynasty ? We propose to analyse the women's place in the herodian propaganda as well as their political role beside the king. An evolution can be highlighted : contrary to Herod the Great, who was a "king without queen", Agrippa I, Agrippa II and Aristobulus decided to show themselves with a queen beside them. From then, monarchy had to be embodied by a royal couple.
 
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Les métamorphoses animales des divinités dans la Méditerranée antique
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Looking for the authenticity of the sacred one may find out that the first human’s gods could often take the animal form. Since the prehistoric times, human beings worshipped wild animals and represented them in art with care and precision. During the Antiquity, even the most anthropocentric streams of philosophy couldn’t impede the survival of these popular beliefs. Some peoples, like ancient Egyptians, developed a very sophisticated zoomorphic pantheon. Greece and Rome testified a high level of the animal symbolism in mythology and divination. As for the Asia Minor, according to the old traditions, the idea of the wild nature couldn’t be separated there from the perception of the realm of the gods. This paper gives an approach to some historical evidences of god’s metamorphoses into animals and tries to examine the origins of these beliefs in the ancient Mediterranean world. 

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Entre temps de mémoire et temps de l’histoire. L’invention romaine de l’âge d’or
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In this contribution, P.-A. Deproost estimates the originality of the Roman interpretation of the races hesiodic myth. In opposition to the Greek myth, Rome situates the Golden Age at the origin of a process which binds the imaginary of happiness and the political reflection on the survival of the Vrbs and her values.
 
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Les inscriptions de Lepcis Magna en l’honneur de Septime Sévère et de sa famille. Première partie
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This article, in two parts (see), studies the latin inscriptions dedicated to Septimius Severus and his family in the city of Lepcis Magna. In this first part, for each inscription, we give the archaeological context, the datum and the latin text. We also give informations about the donators. In the second part, religions aspects, places where the inscriptions were founded, monumental inscriptions of Septimius Severus in the basilica of the new forum and the cursus honorum of the great-father of the emperor will be studying.
 
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Il santuario, i rituali ed il wanax
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Cette étude commence par un ultérieur approfondissement sur la situation des opérateurs du culte mycéniens et leur organisation. Dans un pareil cadre, particulière évidence est donné au rôle très important du wanax pour doter le monde du temple soit de moyens (en hommes et matériaux) soit d’offrandes (directes et indirectes) et pour « gratifier » les opérateurs du culte (par des rémunérations individuelles), en arrivant jusque à les inclure dans aristocratie foncière. De tout ça, on doit reconnaître les fonctions très complexes du wanax, en ce qui concerne la dimension religieuse de son pouvoir, mais surtout en ce qui concerne son activité de suprême gouvernant qui forgeait les aspects fondamentaux de la structure de la société mycénienne. Puisque il ne s’agit pas d’un phénomène local, soumis à l’influence du substrat, il est légitime de mener une enquête en se référant en particulier au monde ancien indien, et indœuropéen en général. Selon l’auteur on peut ainsi déterminer un rapport dialectique entre processus conservatifs et innovateurs, tel qu’on peut mettre en évidence différents aspects de la société mycénienne et de son devenir historique.
 
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Ritual prescriptions in the etruscan "Liber linteus"
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Le texte le plus long en langue étrusque est le 'Liber linteus', conservé aujourd'hui sous la forme de bandes d'une momie égyptienne exposée dans le musée de Zagreb. Or, dans ce texte, on peut observer des catégories de mots connus, comme des dates de calendrier, des noms divins, ou encore des indications relatives aux sacrifices. Si l'on joint à ces catégories l'élément verbal, il est déjà posible de distinguer et, avec l'aide étymologique fournie par la grammaire louvite, de transposer des phrases voire l'entièreté d'une section répétitive. Dès lors, nous sommes confrontés à des instructions liturgiques.
 
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Droit et religion en Asie Mineure : autour de la reconsacration comme sanction juridique chez les Hittites
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Both legal and religious texts show an interesting coherence as far as the expression appa šuppiyahh- is concerned. Through the analysis of certain passages in Muwatalli’s prayer and various Hittite legal provisions, where the verb is mentioned, it is possible to discover in which ways ‘reconsacration’ was mostly used as a reference to indicate how specific spaces or locations were supposed to be reestablished in their lost cleanliness and purity as a result of the reparation imposed. From that perspective, we conclude that the legal consequence of resacralization, required in documents on law and allusions to public or private worship, always implies the necessary enforcement of a religious order whose balance had been affected by an impious or illegal activity.

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Sacrilège à Pessongoi ! Aspects culturels, religieux et théologiques de la correspondance des rois attalides avec le grand-prêtre de Pessinonte
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The attalid letters from Pessinous are exceptionnal documents for Antiquity, because of their secret nature. They allow the reconstitution of a tragic episod which affected the sanctuary: a sacrilege commited by Galatians. Facing the accident, the author of these texts expresses reactions rarely noticed, linked with theology. It may be added that the presentations of these events became possible by the simple change concerning the word Pessongoi, which figures in the beginning of the first letter.
 
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Lumière sur les loups d’Apollon
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The origin of the name of the deity Apollo is still a matter of debate. The name is attributed to Greek, Anatolian or a substrate language of the Aegean area. Whatever the position one takes on this question, it has consequences far beyond the linguistic debate: it concerns the constitution of the Greek religious belief by inherited or by loan elements. In this article it is decisively taken part for the Greek origin of the deity, which is further linked to elements of Indo-European culture. In spite of some astonishing facts which could be in favor of an Anatolian (or substrate) origin, such an origin is refused. These facts belong already to a further development of the nature of the deity. The whole question is linked to the history of the movements of Indo-European men-groups to unknown regions, notably to the Greek presence in Western Anatolia which is older than generally asumed. In this perspective, Apollo can be considered as a kind of ‘frontier god’ who get’s ‘civilized’ in parallel to the institutional development of the political units venerating him.
 
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Forgerons et sanctuaires dans l’Anatolie antique
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This paper is dealing once again with the blacksmiths’ religion in Anatolia and the god Hephaistos. Wich divinities did the metalworkers prefer? Did they dispose of temple of their own? Did they profit by, within sanctuaries, reserved spaces?
 
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Évolution de la religion assyrienne en milieu syro-hittite et syro-araméen. Syncrétismes religieux et implications politiques
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The main concepts building the identity of the Assyrian State since the Bronze Age developed around the theology of the Assyrian national god, Ashur, leader of the local pantheon and “true” king of Assyria. At the beginning of the first millennium B.C., Assyrian Empire has been founded on a special application of this powerful political ideology, and technically built by a professional army. In this context, the figure of Ashur became most important. The duty of the Assyrian king was to carry out a program of territorial expansion, submitting the neighbouring lands in order to obtain taxes, booties and tributes to be offered to the god. After the conquests, the Assyrian Elites have been confronted with the question of their cultural relations with the new provinces, especially from the point view of the cult of Ashur. While it seems clear that the national cult could not be exported, Anatolia and North Syria became the melting pot where a new religious ideology, corresponding to the needs of the empire, has been created. Monumental reliefs and architectural plans of buildings from these countries, since Iron Age II-III periods, are the best evidence of the reciprocal exchanges between Assyria and its provinces, and good examples of the creolization of religious concepts and iconographic traditions.
 
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Guštāsp et Lug : des similitudes irano-celtiques
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Some parts of Guštāsp’s life told by Firdawsi’s Shahnameh are like some parts of Lug’s life: the Iranian prince and the Celtic god came incognito at the chief town of a kingdom; both presented themselves to king’s palace and enumerated their ability, but failed; both must undergo many tests, but then were successful; both became king’s allies, won at war, and became kings. These resemblances partly question Dumezil’s thesis and deny some parts of Guštāsp’s life are taken from an episode of the Mahābhārata.
 
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Omero ideologo ?
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On relève en Homère une excessive, inacceptable homogénéité entre les Grecs et les non-Grecs. Dans le champ de la religion, le Panthéon grec semble être commun à toutes les gens entraînées dans la guerre de Troie; toutefois Homère introduit un rituel panhellénique des Vieilles pendant la procession menée par Hécube. Tous les personnages, héroïques ou moins, qui prennent part au conflit, emploient un langage qui est apparemment unique; toutefois, les peuples de la coalition anatolienne parlent des langues differentes (Il., IV, 436 seg.). D’un point de vue politique, on observe aussi que les souverains étrangers sont appelés βασιλεις, à la manière grecque. Dans l’Odyssée les Phéaciens semblent être un peuple qui vit heureusement; toutefois Homère admet l’existence de possibles larrons (Od., VIII, 443 seg.). Homère est un témoin attentif et digne de foi – à mon avis – de la réalité du monde mycénien à la fin du IIe millénaire. Pourtant pareilles contradictions étant inadmissibles, elles peuvent être expliquées seulement comme un bien précis objectif. Par le caractère politique-culturel de ces contradictions, il est possible de penser à un but à caractère idéologique.

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Quelques réflexions sur la montagne comme lieu de culte des Hittites
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In this paper, the author presents some aspects of the organization of Hittite festivals when they take place on a mountain. Even if the texts are few and laconic, some details let us think that it required a large human assistance ; for example, the setting up of the “tent” before the king arrives, the forwarding of the supplies for the cultic offers, the coming of many people belonging to the palatial or religious staff. All these particulars show, in an unusual way, the importance of the Hittite outdoor religious festivals.
 
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La divinité du mont Argée
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Classical coins from Caesarea (Kayseri) in Cappadocia and gems depict the Argaeus mountain in relation with a solar deity and horse. Commentators often hesitated to give a name to this deity : Helios-Apollon, Zeus-Sarapis ? According to texts from Kanesh, compared with classical and iconographical sources, the Argaeus-deity could be Pirwa, god of the mountain and protector of horses, the sanctuary of which was a kind of baetyl.
 
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Par monts et par vaux infernaux : la topographie des enfers dans le monde grec
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In archaic and classical Greece, the infernal world is characterized by a large network of rivers and marshy zones. The landscape appears essentially like a meadow (leimwvn), in other words a field heavy with moisture. Nevertheless, it is no flat open country as will be shown in this paper.
 
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Quand la Montagne se rend à la ville
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In a previous paper, I showed that several cults carried out on the Mountain were related to foundation, and were meant to reinforce the roots of kingship as well as regenerating the king when the latter was aged, ailed or diseased. Today, I will examine two ceremonies where the Mountains move towards the city and try to discover the meaning of these travels: a monthly festival and a procession ceremony included within the KI.LAM festivities. In both cases the Mountains go to the city of Hattusha: I will demonstrate that in these two cases their journey is aimed at consolidating royalty and foundation. A new interpretation of the KI.LAM can therefore be surmised: it was one of the most important Hittite religious festivals. I will nevertheless recall the main characteristics of Hittite mountains and some aspects of ritual foundations performed on mountaintops.
 
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Les cultes de montagnes dans le monde louvite
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Texts of IId millenium B.C. underline the importance of mountains in Luwian minds. A few mounts are connected to Luwians, as Arinnanda, where Mursili fought Arzawian refugees. Devotions have been given to Harhara and Sarlaimi. The Hieroglyphic Inscription of Yalburt attested the existence of a sanctuary in Mount Patara (Lukka-Lands), venerated by Tudhaliya IV.
During the Ist millenium B.C., many deities are linked to mountains through the epiclesis of Oreios/eia. There is even a god named Oros in Cilicia. We examine particularly the case of Meter Oreia, rarely assimilated (maybe to Nemesis and Adrasteia in Lycia, more certainly to Athena in Cilicia).
 
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Langue et religion : le cas étrusque
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Many Etruscan words were adopted in the Latin language thanks to the renowned Etruscan piety. The author examines these loanwords and distinguishes three major phases : the 6th century B.C., when the religious architectural vocabulary of the Etruscans was introduced by Etruscan craftsmen, the 4th century B.C., when the haruspices serving Roman magistrates spread the Etruscan words peculiar to sacrifices, the 1st centuries B.C. and A.D., when the books on Etruscan divination were translated into Latin. The author completes and specifies the achievements of G. Breyer’s thesis on the Etruscan loanwords in Latin.
 
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Les génies armés, gardiens de la porte du pylône du temple d’Horus à Edfou
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On both jambs of Edfu’s temple pylon, at the northern side, the visitor can see the figures of 64 anthropoid genious carrying a weapon and affecting an offensive attitude. The legends assigned to these genious mention their names whose significations are related to a wide range of specific concepts of the war and to the psychology of terror in the Egyptian thought. The reading of the texts reveals that these figures, organized in three seasons (akhet, peret, shemu), are distributed in twelve squads (the twelve months). Each team consisting of an unequal number of genious is leaded by a god, in association with his defensive function according to the Apollinopolite mythology. The activity of these armed and terrifying protectors of the Edfu’s temple court is clearly associated to the mythological fight of the Darkness against the Light, i.e. the forces of the Evil and those of the Good. Actually, the pylon and the columns of Edfu’s temple are respectively used as a style and graduations of a solar clock. Therefore, during the solar year, the effects of this phenomenon are observable in the advance of the pylon’s shadow cast on the columns, from the southern (summer solstice)  to the northern side (winter solstice) of the court. According to the sacerdotal interpretation, the armed genious, by their magical power, were supposed to repulse the assault of Darkness against the temple, whose court was considered as a battle field, between the summer and the winter solstice.
 
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Divinités particulières du Tabal
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In this contribution, R. Lebrun gives a study of important deities in the Tabal during the Iron Age. The majority of the gods were luwian but we find also the remembrance of some hurrian gods such as the Stormgod and the Goddess Hebat.
 
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Télipinu au Tabal
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The Weather God of the vineyard mentioned in the Sultanhan and Bor inscriptions show many similarities with the one depicted on the Ivriz rock carving. Il therefore seems likely that we are dealing with the same deity when looking at these three monuments. The God shows characteristic features which compare well with those of Telepinu, one of the most important gods of the Hittite pantheon during the second millennium B.C.
 
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Riflessioni sulla Logica e sul modo di pensare antichi
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Les résultats actuels des études indo-européennes révèlent un aspect du système linguistique préhistorique qui contraste radicalement avec la grammaire traditionnelle. Cet article tend à démontrer que les différences dans l’expression et la syntaxe correspondent à des différences dans l’organisation mentale et le système de la logique. Il est de plus suggéré que le mécanisme linguistique antique cadre mieux avec le langage tel qu’il est activé dans le cerveau, ceci en accord avec ce qui est généralement admis au niveau de la base neurologique du langage. Par parenthèse, une relation est signalée entre cette représentation du langage et la philosophie de Bergson.

 
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Mises à mort rituelles et violences politiques à Rome sous la République et sous l’Empire
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This paper examines the Roman human sacrifices in situation of political violence, throughout the Republic and the Empire. First are considered the human sacrifices made in a private area, secondly the human sacrifices made in a public context.
 
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L’achéen Achille est-il l’ancêtre du philistin Goliath ? À propos de l’armement et de la technique de combat du Philistin
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After a first paper devoted to the iconographical evidence from the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu, this one analyzes the weapons of the Philistines from the textual evidence of the Old Testament, especially the description of the duel between Goliath and David. The scale-corset, the greaves of bronze, the javelin likened to a « weaver’s beam » and the singular contest give us some interesting information. In the problem of the supposed Aegean roots of the Philistine material culture, a close examination of the weapons and the singular contest shows that, apart from the greaves, they are typical in the ancient Near East at the end of the second millennium B.C.
 
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