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Trois divinités tyriennes dans le récit de I Rois 18
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The Storm-God invokated by the prophets of Baal at I Kings 18 has been identified with Baal Shamīm or Milqart. The dance performed by the prophets, Elijah’s ironic references to some business, travel or sleep of this silent God and the presence of the prophets of Asherah allow us to see in this text a polemic against the three main tyrian deities : Baal Shamīm, Ashtart and Milqart.
 
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Note sur la Gordyène
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As a region of Upper Mesopotamia located in the upper part of the Tigris basin, between Armenia and ancient Assyria, but also between the Roman and Persian empires, Gordyene appears regularly in the historical sources, but dedicated studies to it are curiously missing. It seems useful to propose a commented inventory of the main sources – essentially literary, but also epigraphic – concerning this region, and moreover to give a modest notice devoted to the historical geography and to a geopolitical view on that peculiar space, between the reigns of Teglath-Phalasar III and Julian the Apostate (VIIIth century B.C.-IVth century A.D.).
 
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Etimologia indoeuropea ed etimologia del sistema. Riflessioni sul lat. pontifex
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Dans le mot latin pontifex, l’élément ponti-, considéré en tant que « parcours » qui unit l’homme à la divinité, donnait à ce terme la signification de « celui qui ouvre, qui prépare un chemin ». C’était en effet le pontifex qui, pendant le rituel, était en mesure de réaliser ce contact. Une comparaison avec des textes indiens a montré que pontifex n’est pas une création du latin, l’image métaphorique a une origine bien plus ancienne qui remonte à la phase indo-européenne. Dans cet essai, on analyse la présence de cette métaphore dans les langues anatoliennes. Dans les rituels des Hittites, on parle souvent non seulement des chemins que la divinité parcourt pour assister à la cérémonie, mais c’est la formule même du célébrant qui est définie un pont.
 
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Un plastron d’époque néo-assyrienne
F. DE BACKER. — The following study analyses the so-called “irtu” discs worn by some soldiers related to the Neo-Assyrian army as its military personal or its opponents…
 
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La question des mots et noms mitanni-aryens, légués par les Indo-Iraniens du Mittanni
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The paper deals with the issue of the Indo-Aryan-sounding superstrate, represented by Person Names and words in Hurrian texts of the Mittanni Kingdom and related documents of the ancient Near-East. It reexamines the items studied by scholars like Mayrhofer and proposes additional data, that appear to have been overlooked. It also tries to address the reasons why Indo-Iranian people would have ventured in the Near-East.
 
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Le délit de desertio et de transfugium dans les guerres civiles à Rome sous la République
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In times of civil war, desertion, which is a crime punishable by death, almost looks like a minor offense in the Roman army. Sanctions, usually reserved for deserters and defectors, are very rarely applied during the intestine wars of the Republic. The chiefs of the army, by buying the loyalty of soldiers openly, encourage and orchestrate desertion. In the context of chaos that characterized the conflicts between Romans led to a suspension of normal operation of the army, desertion is used as a political weapon by the military officials and political parties to weaken or eliminate the opponent.
 
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Le parti pris des vases. Étude eugubine (IIIe-IIe s. av. J.-C.)
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In the Tables of Gubbio, a very important place is given to the dishes, which obviously play the role of receptacle for products involved in the sacrifice, but also have a specific religious role. This study attempts to define the nature and function of each of the mentioned containers and their ritual use. They have not only to supply the cooking of the sacrifice with a whole set of varied dishes or pans, but also to present offerings to the gods in suited plates or cups. Moreover, the containers go with the gesture, support the prayer. By the play of their colours, they even express the ambiguity of particular contradictory gods and, more widely, reflects a universe made of opposites which the rite has to reconcile.
 
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Propos sur la naissance de la notion de sphère dans l’Antiquité
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the Greek notion of sphere is part of a process of continuity / rupture which goes back to Sumer. There, the cosmos becomes in astronomy the celestial sphere, known under two aspects: that of the theory where, although absent from the lexicon, we can deduce from two tangent circles which wrap it; and that of the practice where is used the hemispherical sundial, named scaphe by the Greeks; at the same time, the "totality" is, on the clay tablet, a perfect disk / ring. In Greece, the mathematical sphere, which assumes a perfect shape and acquires for the human thought a remarkable efficiency, also ensues from the vision of a cosmos influenced by Mesopotamia and feeds, in the diverse stages of its elaboration, contributions of the Babylonian astronomy.
 
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Le sidétique et le pisidien
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This contribution offers a short presentation of the Pisidian and the Sidetic languages who, such as the Lycian, are direct heiresses to the Luwian language. Yet, the documentation relating to Pisidian and Sidetic remains scarce. At the end of the article the reader finds a comparative board between the Luwian (cuneiform and hieroglyphic) and the Lycian languages.
 
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D’Horus à Pharaon et au peuple égyptien. La symbolique du dieu-fils dans la civilisation de l’Égypte pharaonique (2778-1085 av. J.-C.)
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According to the osirian myth, the man (Osiris) marries her sister (Isis) and it is the child (Horus) stemming from this union who becomes the heir apparent. It thus seems clearly that the son (Horus) becomes a god-son intended to govern Egypt, ground of the gods. The symbolism of the god-son indicates that in the country of Pharaoh, the power is above all intended for the male child, and that the sisters come to give evidence that it is indeed about a justifiable child. The son who is placed on the Egyptian throne has to be a god-son, because Egypt, being the property of the gods, the only ones of the gods-son are authorized to insure the royal load.
 
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Pianificazioni urbanistiche a Bosra nel II e III secolo d.C. Realtà, natura e sostanza degli interventi edilizi romani nella capitale della provincia Arabia
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L’article étudie l’urbanisme de Bostra, capitale de la province romaine d’Arabie à l’époque de Trajan et durant les IIe et IIIe siècles ap. J.-C. Une première partie est axée sur l’analyse de la cité d’époque romaine, en particulier l’architecture civile des deux premiers siècles de la phase provinciale. Dans une deuxième partie sont étudiées les origines, les causes, les modalités et les temps du développement urbanistique de la cité, en mettant en évidence l’idéologie et les caractères socio-culturels résultant de la romanisation. Le schéma interprétatif proposé révèle une ville dans laquelle, bien avant l’attribution du statut de capitale provinciale en 106 ap. J.-C., émerge une identité culturelle hellénistico-romaine. En effet, cette étude met en avant d’une part la coexistence d’éléments locaux de tradition nabatéenne et d’autre part l’adoption de modes de vie allogènes, en particulier romains. Ceci est évident si l’on considère l’apparat monumental du IIe s. ap. J.-C., conditionné par la présence en ville de la IIIe légion Cyrenaica. Le culte impérial est associé aux divinités locales, qui incarnent l’identité religieuse traditionnelle de la population urbaine. Une nouvelle phase de développement monumental est chronologiquement attestée à l’époque des Sévères ; celle-ci modifie le visage de Bostra : à la différence de l’urbanisme pratiqué au IIe s. ap. J.-C., la ville se remplit d’édifices dépourvus de rôle fonctionnel direct mais revêtus d’une forte connotation idéologique.
 
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Le bestiaire des princes clients du Proche-Orient romain :  animaux symboliques et propagande (Ier s. av. J.-C. - Ier s. apr. J.-C.)
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The Commagenian, Nabataean and Iturean princes, and even Herod the rex iudaicus, used the image of the eagle as a symbol of their authority. However, the meaning of these eagles was different according to the context. Other images of animals appeared in the iconography of the near-eastern “friends of the Romans”: horses, dromedaries and also a symbolic and zodiacal bestiary in Commagene and Pontus.
 
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L'essor de l'Assyrie et la fragilité des normes politiques
A. TUGENDHAFT. — This essay explores the dynamic relationship between political events and poltical ideology through a study of Assyria’s place within the family of great powers at the end of the Bronze Age…
 
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La « Dame » de Villers-Carbonnel : une spiritualité au Néolithique ?
Fr. BOSTYN. — De preventieve opgravingen die stroomopwaarts van het in aanbouw zijnde kanaal Seine - Noord-Europa werden uitgevoerd hebben een vrouwenbeeldje uit het Neolithicum in Villers-Carbonnel aan het licht gebracht…
 
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De l'or pour les dieux celtiques ?
A. CAHEN-DELHAYE, J.-M. DOYEN. — Talrijke Keltische depots, bestaande uit halsringen en gouden munten, werden ontdekt op het grondgebied van de Nerviërs. Eén ervan bevat één van de meesterwerken van de Keltische edelsmeedkunst: de torque van Frasnes-lez-Buissenal…
 
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Trésors d’un autre âge
L. CAMMAERT, I. JADIN, P. SEMAL. — Bijna twee miljoen jaar lang heeft de mens in onze streken en op vele andere plaatsen in de wereld vuistbijlen vervaardigd en bewaard…
 
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À la table des comtes de Hennin-Liétard : le faste des banquets organisés au château de Boussu dès le milieu du XVIe siècle
S. CHALLE, C. ANSIEAU, Cl. DUMORTIER, C. HERCOT, F. PIGIERE, D. WILLEMS. — De opgravingen die sinds 1991 op de site van het kasteel van Boussu zijn gedaan hebben een aanzienlijke hoeveelheid archeologisch materiaal aan het licht gebracht, met name keramiek…
 
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Les haches et lames en silex de la minière néolithique de Spiennes
H. COLLET, Fr. BOSTYN. — In het dorpje Spiennes (B., Henegouwen) bevindt zich een zeer groot centrum van vuursteenmijnbouw en -bewerking ter grootte van zo'n honderd hectare dat reeds dateert uit het Neolithicum…
 
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Contributions géomorphologiques à l’étude de deux sites mérovingiens en Hainaut
O. COLLETTE. — Door de archeologische gegevens, de waarnemingen op het terrein en bijkomende ruimtelijke analyses samen te brengen kon men de kennis van de Merovingische begraafplaatsen in Viesville (B. Henegouwen, Pont-à-Celles) en op de Grand’Place in Quaregnon aanvullen…
 
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Étudier l’invisible. Un fossé de l’âge du Bronze moyen à Havay-Givry
M. DEMELENNE, O. COLLETTE, F. DAMBLON, M. HERMAN, I. JADIN. — De in cirkelvorm gegraven structuur in Havay-Givry wordt qua ouderdom gesitueerd in de Midden-Bronstijd. Gelijkaardige structuren zijn gevonden in de cultuur van Éramécourt (Frankrijk) en Hilversum (Vlaanderen en Nederland)…
 
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Ceci n’est pas le fossé d’Havay-Givry
M. DEMELENNE, P. DEMELENNE. — De door een gracht omgeven ruimte van Havay-Givry is een stukje onzichtbare architectuur waarvan het enkel door de geleidelijke verdwijning is dat de geschiedenis ervan kan geschreven worden…
 
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L’archéologie avant la fouille. Le potentiel archéologique du Domaine de Mariemont
M. DEMELENNE, G. DOCQUIER. — In Mariemont zelf (B., Henegouwen, Morlanwelz), werd nog geen enkele opgravingscampagne gedaan. Dankzij de samenwerking tussen een historicus en een archeoloog, archiefdocumenten, cartografische en iconografische documenten is het mogelijk zich de site in zijn diachronische ontwikkeling voor te stellen…
 
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L'époque mérovingienne en Hainaut
M. DENIS, G. DUMONT. — In Henegouwen werden de jongste jaren twee Merovingische dodenakkers grondig doorzocht, in Viesville en Quaregnon…
 
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Enceintes et châteaux en Hainaut
M. DE WAHA. — Henegouwen heeft een uitgebreid patrimonium aan middeleeuwse forten. De gebruikte materialen, met name aarde, hout maar ook steen, vertellen veel over de opmerkelijke technische kennis en vooruitgang…
 
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Archéologie, histoire et histoire de l’art. L’indispensable rencontre des disciplines
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A. DIERKENS, « Archéologie, histoire et histoire de l’art. L’indispensable rencontre des disciplines », in DEMELENNE M. and DOCQUIER G. (dir.), Trésor ? / Trésor ! Archéologie au cœur de l'Europe, Brussels, 2014.
 
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Charleroi, forteresse oubliée
M. DOSOGNE, A. LECOMTE. — Het beeld dat velen van Charleroi hebben is dat van een industriële metropool die in de 19de eeuw floreerde. De ongewone geschiedenis van de stad begint echter in 1666, wanneer de regering van de Spaanse Nederlanden beslist om ‘ex nihilo’ een fort op te trekken aan de Samber…
 
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Les jardins de Mariemont sous Charles de Lorraine
X. DUQUENNE. — In 1749 vestigt Karel van Lotharingen zich in Mariemont en hij beslist om er een nieuw kasteel op te trekken maar ook om de tuinen opnieuw in te richten…
 
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Vivre et mourir à l’âge du Bronze en Hainaut
W. LECLERCQ. — Talrijke depots van bronzen voorwerpen, zoals die van de ‘Trou des Nutons’ in Presles (B., Henegouwen), bewijzen dat er in de Bronstijd contacten en uitwisselingen waren (dichtbij maar ook verder weg)…
 
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Sur les pas des nobles hainuyers : l’archéologie du bâti et la valorisation des trésors d’architecture
C. MATHIEU. — De habitat van de Henegouwse lage adel tussen de 15de en de 17de eeuw - een patrimonium dat vaak miskend wordt - werd bestudeerd volgens een precieze methodologie…
 
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Apports et limites de l’archéologie expérimentale. La reconstitution du fourneau à sel gaulois de Pont-Rémy
G. PRILAUX, C. CHAIDRON, Chr. HOËT-VAN CAUWENBERGHE, A. MASSE. — Als ze met grote zorgvuldigheid wordt toegepast kan de experimentele methode veel toevoegen aan de kennis van de oude productie-activiteiten…
 
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Vestiges de la Grande Guerre au sein d’un vaste programme archéologique français. L’exemple du Canal Seine-Nord Europe
G. PRILAUX, M. TALON. — Tijdens de preventieve opgravingen die werden uitgevoerd voor de bouw van het kanaal Seine - Noord-Europa kwamen talrijke overblijfselen aan het licht…
 
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La vie municipale et religieuse dans les cités du Nord de la Gaule
M.-Th. RAEPSAET-CHARLIER, G. RAEPSAET. — De romanisering van Gallië was een langdurig en moeizaam proces, dat nochtans ondersteund werd door een grondig uitgewerkte institutionele structuur en de aanwezigheid van troepen aan de grenzen, alsook door de integratie van de bevolking in de Romeinse beschaving die doorheen het hele Romeinse rijk handelsverkeer genereert…
 
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Collectes de surface [inventoriées]
A.-F.RASSEAUX. — Ook al is de archeologie een wetenschap, ze brengt voor een stuk ook een bepaalde fascinatie en een zekere verwondering met zich en, als logisch uitvloeisel hiervan: de verbeelding…
 
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Des haches néolithiques à l’époque romaine
A. THIEBAUX, I. JADIN, E. GOEMAERE. — Zes Neolitische bijlen en een beitel uit steen, afkomstig uit de oude opgravingen van twee Romeinse villae in Houdeng-Goegnies vertonen sporen waarvan de interpretatie is dat ze hergebruikt zijn in de Gallo-Romeinse tijd…
 
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Tournai, une ville « au confluent de la nature et de l’artifice »
L. VERSLYPE, I. DERAMAIX. — Dankzij vijfentwintig jaar archeologische opzoekingen kunnen we de sociale, economische, religieuze en militaire geschiedenis van Doornik beter documenteren…
 
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Des ZAC, des ZAI et des ZAP dans l’Antiquité
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F. VILVORDER, E. WEINKAUF and F. PIGIÈRE, « Des ZAC, des ZAI et des ZAP dans l’Antiquité », in DEMELENNE M. and DOCQUIER G. (dir.), Trésor ? / Trésor ! Archéologie au cœur de l'Europe, Brussels, 2014.
 
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Les symboles divins solaires hittites. Circulation ou invention ?
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During Antiquity, Men live everyday the constant presence of the sun. Therfore their lifestyle is influenced by the sunlight and its positive heat. It could explain the fact that the Sun God becomes one of the main divinities. However civilizations from diverse regions of the Ancient Near East perceive the Sun in the same way. The representation is it invented in each place? Or is it broadcast a culture to another ? This concern centred on Anatolia is the heart of this paper that will attempt to highlight different points of view of the symbolism of the Solar divinity.
 

 

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L’apprentissage de la métrologie à Ougarit à la fin de l’âge du Bronze récent
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Within the lexicographic framework, the metrological texts in Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform discovered at Ras-Shamra provide a testimony for the formulation of metrological knowledge at Ugarit towards the end of the Late Bronze Age. I Have chosen to compare these data with the older material from Nippur and hope to show that the Ugaritic measures of content and surface show Old-Babylonian antecedents for some of their elements while others are of local origin.
 

 

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La littérature d'Ougarit, creuset de traditions venues d'outremer et d'outremonts
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The myths of Ras Shamra-Ugarit contain a western legacy illustrated by the gods Kôtharu wa Hasisu and Qadisu wa 'Amraru and related to the migration of skills. The eastern legacy is illustrated by the mythico-magic document “H˚oron and the snakes”, related to the transfers of knowledge. In the legends of Kirta and Aqhatu, several elements are related to the transmission of wisdom.
 

 

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La transmission de l'alphabet phénicien aux Grecs.  “Confrontation dialectique” des théories de B. B. Powell et de R. D. Woodard et synthèse de S.-T. Teodorsson
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Studies on the origin and development of the alphabet are very abundant: considering the last twenty years only, I listed more than thirty papers and monographs, which focus their attention on the mother script and antiquity of the Greek alphabet or the place and modalities of its transmission. In this paper, I shall comment three key theories, namely these of B.B. Powell (1991), related with Homeric epics, R.D. Woodard (1997), related with Cypriot syllabic writing, and S.-T. Teodorsson (2006), related with oriental literature. I chose them because they offer a global model of the alphabet’s historical reconstitution, which takes into consideration all parts of the question. Powell’s “Homer related” theory and Woodard’s, on a Cypriot origin, apparently completely opposed, seem to be combined to a certain degree by Teodorsson, who proposes a kind of compromise between literary influence and trade routes.
 

 

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Plato Ikhwanianus. Retour sur le récit platonicien de l'anneau de Gygès dans l'encyclopédie des Frères de la Pureté
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In the 52nd and last epistle of the Brethren of Purity, one finds a passage which is a very faithful translation of Plato’s famous narrative about the ring of Gyges. Taking into account the literality of the translation, the size of the passage (about 30 lines) and the precision of the reference made to the original text, it may fairly be assumed that it is a unicum in the history of the transmission of Plato to the Arab world. The purpose of this paper is to take up again this issue and try to bring up some new elements to the discussion.
 

 

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Le Platon arabe et les Sabéens de Harran. La "voie diffuse" de la transmission du platonisme en terre d'Islam
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In the absence of integral and litteral Arabic translations of Plato’s dialogues, the transmission of Platonism in the Muslim world was an indirect one, passing through different channels such as medical works, doxographies and gnomologies. The complexity and relative obscurity of this ‘voie diffuse’, in which according to Pierre Thillet oral transmission played an important role, led to all kinds of hazardous speculations about the existence of a Platonic Academy among the “Sabaens” in Ḥarrān, which was supposed to be still in activity in the Xth century. This article proposes a critical analysis of one of the most quoted “evidences” for this theory: al-Mas‘ūdī’s report about a Platonic inscription he claims to have seen on the door-knocker of the maǧma‘ of the Sabaeans in Ḥarrān. Rather than proving the existence of a “Platonic Academy” there, al-Mas‘ūdī offers us an eloquent illustration of the way Platonism was transmitted in the Muslim world.
 

 

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La migration du savoir entre les communautés : le cas de la littérature arabe chrétienne
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This paper addresses the important phenomenon of contacts and influences between the various religious communities of the pre-modern Near East in the field of the written heritage, and more particularly in that of Christian Arabic literature. The introduction discusses several examples of such interchange, on the one hand, between the various Christian communities (Melkites, Syrians, Copts) and between various language traditions (Syriac, Armenian, Coptic, Arabic) and on the other hand, between Christian and Muslim intellectual environments. The main part of the paper investigates the textual similarities that can be detected in the works of Sulaymān al-Ġazzī, Melkite bishop of Ghazza in the the tenth and eleventh centuries A.D., and the famous Epistles of the Iḫwān al-Ṣafā’ (Brethren of Purity). Some preliminary suggestions are given for the question as to how such similarities might have come about.
 

 

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L’influence du traité "Les airs, les eaux et les lieux" d’Hippocrate chez les penseurs arabes du Moyen Âge
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In this paper, I want to show the influence of the hippocratic treatise On airs, waters, places ((Περὶ ἀέρων, ὑδάτων, τόπων) and Galen’s commentary in particular, on the arabic scientific literature. Of course, we find it in medicine but also in geography. In this field, the Galen’s commentary of hippocratic text determined the base of the theory of geographical determinism, giving a conceptual structure (physic and even physiological) to the influence of the man’s environment. The mediaeval thinkers applied this theory to the humanity and in this context, the hippocratic opposition between Schythians and Egyptians is replaced by the one between Turks and Egyptians or Slaves and Blacks. They used it also to explain the physical constitution and the ethics of a specific population.
 
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Les débuts de l'alphabet en Orient et en Occident. Quelle ambiance !
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The creation of the alphabet and its diffusion occurred in a very particular climate, characterized by an extreme freedom and inventiveness.
This apparently irrepressible outburst appears not only in the very beginnings of the alphabet in the Middle East (from ca 2000 BC) but also when it was diffused in Asia Minor and Occident — in the Phrygian world, since the end of the IXth c., and in Greece and Italy, since ca 775.
 

 

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De Baghdad à Cordoue : une migration de la tradition grammaticale arabe
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The Arabic Grammatical Tradition aims at studying the Kalâm-ʾl-ʿArab or “Language of the Arabs”, relying on texts written before 130/750. ʾAbû ʿAlî al-Qâlî (Manâzgird 280/893 – Cordoba 355/966), after having learnt Arabic grammar in Baghdad, has left the city in 328/939 for teaching in Cordoba from 330/941, applying the principles of Basra Grammatical School Tradition. He wrote several books, but one of them may be considered as typical for this Tradition : “The Book of Shortened and Extended Noun”, a critical edition of which has recently been published by Dr. al-Haridi. Al-Qâlî does no more regard “shortened noun” (ʾism maqṣûr) and “reduced noun” (ʾism manqûṣ) as synonymous as Ancient Grammarians did. In his view, a shortened noun is a noun where a /y/ or a /w/ is included as a radical. He looks for a main structural principle organizing grammatical rules, putting aside the nawâdir or unusual words. So that we may think about him as occupying an intermediary position between Ibn Sarrâǧ and Ibn Ǧinnî in the history of Arabic Grammatical Tradition.
 
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La Chine illustrée d’Athanase Kircher (China monumentis illustrata, 1667). La découverte des caractères chinois et son apport aux débats sur les écritures au XVIIe siècle
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The discovery and knowledge of Chinese characters in the 17th century nourished reflections about the principal ideas that occupied the thinkers of the 17th century. Kircher, best known as an Egyptologist, popularized information about China. As for writing, the comparison with Egyptian hieroglyphs allowed him to oppose on one hand a writing which corresponded to ordinary words and language used in everyday life, and on the other the subtlety and the mystery of Egyptian hieroglyphs, which remained removed from the day-to-day life due to their inspiration stemming from more abstract ideas.
 
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L’apport des Hourrites dans les migrations du savoir en Anatolie à l’âge du Bronze
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In this contribution we find an approach of the problematic relating to the Hurrian influence on the Hittite Civilization during the Bronze Age.The Hurrian science and literature comes from the Sumerian country until Kizzuwatna (Cilicia) via Syria (Alep). During the 13th century B.C. the Hurrian rituals, the religious conceptions and the cultural influence arrived mightily in Hattusa, namely during the reign of Great King Hattusili III and Queen Puduhépa with aid of kizzuwatnean scribes such as the Great Sribe Walwaziti.
 
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Les échanges de motifs littéraires entre chrétiens et musulmans à l’époque ottomane : le cas de la tradition orale des âşık
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The analysis of the Turkish popular literature, which was told and sung by the âşık, the story-tellers who used to recite their folk stories in the remote villages of Anatoly, shows that though these folk stories are original, some of their episodes go back to former traditions, like the Armenian legends and the Byzantine epos. In the same time, the religious and/or ethnic minorities of the Ottoman Anatolia – Greek, Armenian and Georgian Christians, but also Jews and Shiite Muslims – developed various attitudes toward these Anatolian folk stories. In some cases, they adopted it as they were told and they introduced them in their own repertory. In other cases, they adapted, partially or totally, these folk stories, making their heroes Christians or Shiites, changing their names and their places of birth. All these attitudes show the extreme vitality of the oral tradition in Anatolia.
 
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La circulation des biens et des savoirs en Égypte romaine
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There is still a false look about commerce in Antiquity. Many clichés like life in autarky always exist. But, in Roman Egypt, commerce seems to be something of more complex.
There is local productions (like mining exploitations), but some towns are true centres of circulation of goodies coming from far away. Some sites testify of contacts with Arabia, India, Red Sea…by the way of ports like Berenice. Roads for caravans lie through deserts, with some military camps, wells and temples along them. Religious centres in commercial towns seem to be some keys to understand much the conception of commerce in Antiquity. In Roman Egypt, the emperor is portray like pharaoh offering local goodies (or exportation products coming in the site) to the pantheon. This fact could be easily explain: the piety of the king help to focalise the goodness of the gods on earthly economy.
 
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