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Crudelis tu quoque, mater. Sur un passage problématique du chant de Damon (Virgile, VIIIe Bucolique, v. 47-50)
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The verses 47-50 of the eighth Eclogue are very confusing: they refer to personae whose identity can’t be clearly established (crudelis mater, puer improbus). Besides, their inelegantly emphatic form lets us suppose a textual corruption. Yet, an intertextual approach helps us to shed light on the meaning of the passage: the portrayal of incest in Catullian Carmen 64 (v. 403-406) − which obviously influenced Virgil − is very close to Virgilian verses, and takes place in a similar context: the depiction of crimes induced by Love. Hence our hypothesis that the ‘cruel mother’ (crudelis mater) and the ‘indecent child’ (improbus puer) are mentioned as an anonymous exemplum of incest.
 

 

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Naharina et Mitanni au IIe millénaire avant J.-C. À propos des maryannou et de la présence hourrite en Égypte
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During the New Egyptian Kingdom, numerous foreigners stayed in Egypt. If some of them came with a lot of diplomatic embassies, the others were captured during military campaigns. Children of foreign kings stayed in the kap’s school of the palace, and princesses are given in marriage to Egyptian king. Among these foreigners, Hurrians and their famous maryannou exercised a very important domination.
 
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De la Vallée du Nil au Pays du Fleuve. Réflexions à propos du Naharina
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The aim of this paper is to put in light the historical, political and geographical context of the Late Bronze Age Middle East that led to the apparition of the toponym Naharina in Egyptian Texts. What was the reality behind this term ? Why did it occur so frequently in Egyptian sources despite the non-egyptian etymological origin ? Was it linked to the Hurrian Empire of Mitanni ? These are questions which at some point will need clear answers.
 

 

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Urartu. Les sources épigraphiques de la langue
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Following the publication of the Corpus of Urartian Inscriptions, namely of the first three volumes dedicated to the monumental texts (inscriptions on building stones and rocks) it is important to stress the importance of strong epigraphic research for linguistic studies. Apart from the well known methods of interpretation of an ancient language (ethymology, bilinguals, combinatory method) in the case of Urartian there is another one, consisting mainly in the study of the connections between inscriptions and their monumental and archaeological contexts. In this article some rock inscriptions are studied and interpretations of lexical elements and grammatical forms are offered. All these hypotheses are based exclusively on in situ study of inscriptions both in Eastern Turkey and Iranian Azerbaijan.
 
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Élamite. Analyse grammaticale et lecture de textes
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Elamite, a limited text-corpus language, was spoken in southwest Iran at least from c. 2350 till the fourth century BC. In this article a general overview of the Elamite grammar (writing system, phonology, morphology, and syntax) is presented. Following this presentation some texts will be discussed.
 

 

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Per l’etimo dell’ittito maškan-
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Cet essai analyse le mot hittite maškan- « don, récompense propitiatoire, dessous de table » afin d’en proposer une étymologie. L’étude des attestations montre que la composante principale de la signification de maškan- pourrait appartenir au domaine de l’illégalité. À la lumière de ceci on propose d’analyser le mot maškan- comme un dérivé en -an (sur l’exemple de l’hittite ¯enkan- « ruine, mort », takšan- « jonction, moyen ») de la racine indo-européenne *mesg- « immerger, submerger » : maškan- serait alors, littéralement, « ce qui est souterrain, ce qui est caché ».
 
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Cruelty and Military Refinements
F. DE BACKER. — La mutilation et la fragmentation des corps des ennemis vaincus appartenaient aux techniques de combat néo-assyriennes…
 
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Lat. "gravastellus" (Plaut. "Epid." 620): un "hapax" problematico
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L’adjectif plautinien grāvāstellus (Ep., 620) a toujours posé des problèmes à l’analyse  linguistique, étant donné qu’il s’agit d’un hapax et aussi parce qu’il n’a été pas transmis de manière univoque par tous les manuscrits (dans certains d’entre eux, on lit ravistellus). Toutefois, la forme grāvāstellus est défendable du point de vue philologique, si on prend en compte l’authenticité et l’autorité de la tradition qui l’atteste. Il est possible, dès lors, de faire remonter grāvāstellus à un étymon *grā-u̯os, qui se retrouve dans la variante plus récente rāvus, « gris ». Lié étymologiquement à des formes grecques telles que γραῦς, « vieille femme », l’adjectif *grā-u̯os comporte un signifié primitif « vieux », qui a donné, par spécialisation sémantique, le sens de « gris » dans rāvus. L’existence de telles variations en latin est confirmée par la comparaison avec les autres langues indo-européennes.
 
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Expulser l’autre. À propos d’un rituel ombrien (TI VI b 52 à VII a 2)
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The present paper aims at analyzing the description of an Umbrian ritual (TI VI b 52 to VII a 2). During this ritual, the foreigners are expelled from among the citizens of Iguvium. I examine how aggressive urges are unleashed, and on the same time controlled, in the frame of the religious performance.
 
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Anfang und Ende des Ersten Pestgebetes Muršilis II.
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Tout hittitologue ou spécialiste de l’histoire de l’Anatolie antique devra se réjouir de voir avantageusement restaurés, grâce à de nouveaux « joins », deux passages de la première prière contre la peste qui ravageait le Hatti du Grand Roi hittite Moursili II (1318-1290 av. J.-C.) ; il s’agit du Ro 1-7, 16-22 et du Vo 44-51. La publication enrichissante de ces deux passages est assortie d’observations philologiques d’un grand intérêt.
 
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Les inscriptions de Lepcis Magna en l’honneur de Septime Sévère et de sa famille. Deuxième partie
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This article is the second part of a study intituled « The inscriptions of Lepcis Magna in honour of Septimius Severus and his family ». In this first article, we exposed the epigraphically corpus used and tried to identified author of this texts (see).
 
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L’enfant de la  IVe Bucolique : un autre Zarathuštra ?
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Because the ambiguousness of the Latin grammar we don’t know who in Virgil’s 4th Eclogue (vv. 60 – 63) smiles (the child to his mother or the mother to her child). In order to work out this problem we compare the birth of the child and Zoroaster’s whose Virgil’s contemporaries knew the live, at least partly. We thus may say not only the child smiles to his mother, but also he is born in a religious environment, as when Zoroaster was born. In the 4th Eclogue, Virgil provides the child with some Zoroaster’s salient features, in order that the child has the qualities of the founder of the religion the Parthians, i.e. the Rome’ enemies, practise, and because the child will see the submission of the Parthians.
 
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Antiquité classique et tradition biblique en symbiose dans l’Anthologie Palatine, VIII, Epigrammes 12-23
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In order to situate the Anthologia Palatina in the cultural history of Europe, this article analyses twelve literary epitaphs of Gregory of Nazianzus : 1. Book XXIV, Epitaphia 12-23, texts and observations; 2. biographical order of the poems; 3. the junction of classical and patristic traditions; 4. private poetry.
 
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Byzance et le Mont Athos au Petit Palais à Paris
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Under the auspices of the municipality of Paris, the art and history of Byzantium have been presented to the public in an exhibition gathering together a large collection of treasures from Mount Athos at the Petit Palais in Paris from the 10th of April to the 5th of July 2009.
 
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Le rôle politique des femmes de la dynastie d’Hérode. Hérodiade, Cypros, Bérénice, Salomé
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What were the princesses' official functions in the herodian dynasty ? We propose to analyse the women's place in the herodian propaganda as well as their political role beside the king. An evolution can be highlighted : contrary to Herod the Great, who was a "king without queen", Agrippa I, Agrippa II and Aristobulus decided to show themselves with a queen beside them. From then, monarchy had to be embodied by a royal couple.
 
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La conception des animaux domestiques et des animaux de compagnie dans la Mésopotamie d’époque historique
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In the ancient Near East the animals are very often represented in art and are present mostly in temples but also in houses and in palaces. Wild animals are more frequently reproduced than domesticated. The most represented domesticated animals are those ones mentioned in the texts : first cattle and then goat, sheep, donkey/horse, dog. It’s difficult to establish which kind of animals Mesopotamians considered as domesticated : only those which had an usefulness for milk and meat, for transport, for war and hunting, for ploughing or also those which aroused friendly feelings ? Was there a feeling for animals like that we have today for pets ? In iconography, but chiefly in texts and in archaeozoologic data there are some elements which suggested that there was a feeling for at least some animals, mainly monkey, cattle, dog and horse.

 
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Conditions et symbolisme de l’animal domestique dans le culte de la divinité Soleil
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In the second millennium BC, numerous sacrifices of animals were made in honour of the divinity Sun in Anatolia. During the sacrifices of pets, sheep, ox and  pig are the most usually animals mentioned. By basing itself on a representative sample of extracts of texts, we shall put in relationship the world of the gods with the world of the Men. In this paper, we shall emphasize the fact that the animals which are a part of the current life of the Men are the ones also presented to the gods for the divine consumption.

 
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Chameaux et hybrides dans l'empire achemenide
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Camel, almost as much as horse, had an important place in the Iranian world. This article, wich does not pretend to be exhaustive, seeks to present some of is major uses. It aims to deal with the issue of cross-breeding in the achaemenid Empire.

 
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Les animaux domestiques dans les lois hittites
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Pets are very present in the laws of the Hittites. After trying to approach the concept of pet, we shall see what sorts of pets are present in the laws of the Hittites, and what their function and status are. We shall also show that it is not only the point of view of the legislator that is represented in the laws : religion is never far away, the laws of human society being like those of the cosmos.

 
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Le chien dans l'Anatolie antique
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In this short contribution it is possible to find an aspect of the dog’s situation in Ancient Anatolia, especially in the limits of the Hittite civilization. Some aspects relating to the social position of this animal and the relations between the men and the dog were unknow.

 
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Les métamorphoses animales des divinités dans la Méditerranée antique
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Looking for the authenticity of the sacred one may find out that the first human’s gods could often take the animal form. Since the prehistoric times, human beings worshipped wild animals and represented them in art with care and precision. During the Antiquity, even the most anthropocentric streams of philosophy couldn’t impede the survival of these popular beliefs. Some peoples, like ancient Egyptians, developed a very sophisticated zoomorphic pantheon. Greece and Rome testified a high level of the animal symbolism in mythology and divination. As for the Asia Minor, according to the old traditions, the idea of the wild nature couldn’t be separated there from the perception of the realm of the gods. This paper gives an approach to some historical evidences of god’s metamorphoses into animals and tries to examine the origins of these beliefs in the ancient Mediterranean world. 

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Les animaux domestiques dans les sources lyciennes
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Some questions about pets in Lycia through iconographical documents and rare mentions in epichoric epigraphy. We focused on Dynastic times in Lycia and observed that representations of such animals may be issued from an Anatolian Tradition.

 
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Production céramique et representations animales à l’époque de Halaf
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Fauna is very well represented on Halafian ceramic production. Among it, domestic and wild animals are easily recognized.
Following Levi-Strauss’s point of  view which highlighted that the « animals good to eat » are not the only ones « good to think », we will try to demonstrate that behind the picture, imagery, human activities and social orientations are reflected.
After a brief presentation of the halafian ceramic production, a comparitive study with zoological and archeozoological data and iconographic considerations, many observations will be proposed. Firstly, we will focus on the large variety of represented species. Secondly, the importance of the ceramic medium in the image diffusion will be considered. Lastly, the social implications of such a bestiary will be discuss.

 
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Le “Chien” dans la tradition juive des littératures bibliques et para- et postbiblique (Ahiqar, écrits de Qumrân, pseudépigraphes et littérature rabbinique)
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Dogs in Judaism in biblical and extra- and postbiblical traditions (Ahiqar, writings from Qumran, Apocryphal and Rabbinic literature)
In Judaism, from the Torah until the later writings from Qumran and the Rabbinic literature, dogs are generally considered to be unclean, bad and fierce.
Despite the general negative connation, there are a few exceptional passages  where dogs occupy a very positive position as creatures faithful to their masters and  as guardians like in the apocryphal book of Tobit where the dog accompanies Tobias on his journey to Ekbatana. A similar role is assigned to the dog in the Midrash where Cain, having killed his brother Abel, is given a dog by God as a symbol of his protection.
In the Rabbinic tradition it is also written that the dogs stayed silent while the Israelites began to exit from Egypt, and the Talmud says that Jews should "tolerate" dogs.
 
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Le singe dans le monde minoen et cycladique
J. VANSCHOONWINKEL. — The representations of monkeys are numerous in the Minoan and Theran art although the monkey is not an animal native of the Aegean…
 
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Les langues indigènes d’Anatolie à l’époque hellénistique : présentation du thème
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We find at the time of the opening of this meeting a short presentation of some anatolian languages during the hellenistic period, such as  Lycian, Lydian, Phrygian or Carian. All these languages have a common origin : the Luwian Language.

 
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Un bref aperçu de la langue lydienne
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The aim of this paper is to give a brief grammatical sketch of Lydian : the author provides data about the corpus of inscriptions, the alphabet, phonology, and morphology.

 
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La restructuration de l’espace graphique dans l’Anatolie du Ier millénaire av. J.-C. Présentation générale
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With the fall of the Hittite empire, [disappeared] the situation of stable digraphia which had marked the second millennium B.C. disappeared. Profound political upheavals will lead to the installation then to the triumph of the alphabet, especially of the Greek alphabet. So shall we discuss the expansion of the Phoenician, Aramaic, and Greek scripts, but also the appearance of original scripts, such as lycian, carian or sidetic, etc.

 
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La position de la langue lycienne : présentation grammaticale et lexicale d’une langue. Représentant du louvite résiduel
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We give here a short  grammatical and lexical presentation of the Lycian language in the perspective of an inheritage by an Anatolian language (5th-4th B.C.) from the Luwian : we find here an extraordinary example of linguistic continuity.

 
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Notes cariennes
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The reader finds here a short presentation of the carian language with a commentary of four inscriptions.

 
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Le stadiasmos de Patara et la définition de l’espace romain dans la nouvelle province de Lycie-Pamphylie
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This article examines the now well-known inscription of Patara, the so-called Stadiasmos of Patara. Authors already argued that the long list of measures between cities of Lycia was useless as an itinerary and travel guide…
 
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Quelques remarques relatives aux pérégrinations des diplomates, au fil des relations égypto-hittites (IIe millénaire avant J.-C.)
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In this paper, the author introduces some aspects concerning relations between Egypt and different states of Asia Minor in the second millenium B.C…
 
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Le voyage de Diodore de Sicile en Égypte, ou le nécessaire recours aux sources de la bibliothèque d’Alexandrie
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In this paper, the author redraws essential stages of the life of Diodorus of Sicily. The trip which this one accomplished in Egypt must exercise important influence for the writing of his work : the Library of History. This sicilian historian could consult sources kept in Alexandria, what allowed him to insert new books (I-VI) dedicating in events previous to the war of Troy.
 
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Cicéron, d’Italie en Cilicie. Conditions, vitesse et impressions de voyage d’un futur gouverneur
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The nomination of Cicero as governor obliged the orator to a long travel from Rome to Cilicia between april and august 51 B.C. Cicero had to organise a long journey to Asia Minor on road and sea, with the obsession to avoid a prorogation in his province…
 
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Les missions des scribes hittites durant la seconde moitié du XIIIe s. av. J.-C.
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This short contribution is relating to the scribe’s travels and functions during the second half of the thirteenth century B.C…
 
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Les pérégrinations des marchands assyriens en haute Mésopotamie et en Asie Mineure
C. MICHEL. — At the beginning of the IInd millennium BC, inhabitants from the Aššur city-state, on the Tigris river, organized large scale commercial exchange with Anatolia…
 
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À la recherche du passé. Le premier voyage en Asie Mineure de Charles Texier
A. PORTNOFF. — Almost all we know about the journeys in the ancient times comes from the archeological researches undertaken by modern travellers…
 
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Les Eubéens, premiers voyageurs grecs en Orient
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Oriental objects are present at Lefkandi on the island of Euboea from the end of the eleventh century and Greek protogeometric vases, specifically euboean, are imported in the Levant in the tenth century…
 
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L’iconographie du sarcophage d’Ahirom. Un bref état de la question
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The aim of the following article is a brief reassessment of the iconography on the sarcophagus of Ahirom, king of Byblos…
 
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L’inscription phénicienne du sarcophage d’Ahiram. Un essai de vocalisation
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The article proposes a vocalisation of the Phoenician inscription of the Sarcophagus of Ahiram. The vocalisation is reconstructed from Assyrian texts, Greek and Latin transcriptions, and parallels with Hebrew. The rules of Semitic comparative grammar are also used.
 
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La place du phénicien en Anatolie au premier millénaire av. J.-C.
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The lector finds here some informations relating to the presence and the cultural influence of the Phoenicians in Anatolia since the Recent Bronze Age, in particular in Southern Anatolia (Cilicia).
 
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La Phénicie et les Phéniciens. Mise en place de la problématique
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We find here a short historical presentation of the Phoenician civilization.
 
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Les "matres lectionis" en phénicien. Nouvelles orientations
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20th century scholars declared that a “system of purely consonantal writing was rigorously maintained in Phoenician” and “no matres lectionis would appear in the orthography”…
 
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Les pseudo-hiéroglyphes de Byblos. Bibliographie et remarques générales
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The paper concerns the pseudo-hieroglyphic texts of Byblos. It proposes a brief review of the main bibliography as well as some general remarks.
 
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La Tyche di Castelraimondo. Un’iconografia ellenistica rinvenuta sulle Alpi orientali italiane
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Dans le cadre d’un projet de fouilles près de l’agglomération mineure de Castelraimondo (province d’Udine, Frioul-Vénétie Julienne, Italie), a été retrouvé une intaille reproduisant l’image de la divinité greco-romaine Fortuna…
 
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"Genus numeri". Relations mathématiques sous-jacentes à l’architecture étrusque : le cas du temple de l’"Ara della Regina" à Tarquinia
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At Tarquinia, the so-called « Ara della Regina » shows exceptional proportions when compared to other Etruscan temples and that since the first half of the VIth century B.C…
 
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Tra etimologia e ricostruzione culturale. Il caso del panfilio επίστασις
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Cet essai analyse le mot επίστασις qui figure dans deux inscriptions dialectales pamphyliennes provenant de Pergé…
 
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Entre temps de mémoire et temps de l’histoire. L’invention romaine de l’âge d’or
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In this contribution, P.-A. Deproost estimates the originality of the Roman interpretation of the races hesiodic myth…
 
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Les denrées en sémitique occidental et autres langues dans les sources nilotiques. Les Levantins et Ioniens en Égypte, des ports du Delta à la fenêtre d’apparition royale
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The author studies the famous presentation of sailors and traders represented in the tomb of Kenamon (TT 162), puting it in perspective with divers hieratic texts which allow to understand ceremonies in touch with the window of appearance and the role of the foreigners for Egyptian economy.
 
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Système proprement latin de la morphologie
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The latin conjugation obeys a law of phonetics very general which limits considerably the successions of consonants with regard to their frequency…
 
9,50 €
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