Res Antiquae IX (2012)

Volume IX, 2012, 368 pages

Res Antiquae (RANT) is a journal dedicated to antiquity. It deals with the antique civilizations that developped around the Mediterranean Sea and its aim is to establish links between the various disciplines that are too often separated.

ISSN 1781-1317

See the papers and the abstracts

55,00 €
Remarques annexes concernant l’accusatif en hittite dans le cadre des langues indo-européennes
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The reader finds in this contribution many remarks relating to the use of the accusativ in Hittite with connexions to other old Indo-european languages, such as Greek, Latin or Sanskrit.
 
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Le vieux-perse
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The article focuses on the Old Persian language, one of the two major Old Iranian languages. It is specifically known by the royal inscriptions of the Achaemenids, a dynasty that founded an Empire controlling all of the Ancient Near East (including Egypt) between c. 550-330 BC. Next to a discussion of the grammar of this language, the article also studies some text examples.
 
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« Imitation ou éclectisme ? ». Nouveau regard sur la statuaire égyptienne d’époque gréco-romaine
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Egyptian and Egyptianising sculptural representations need to be carefully considered when archaeological context is missing. In this type of study, attention needs to be drawn to the style and the iconography. The present article focuses on an Egyptian statue without provenance exhibited in the Royal Museum of Mariemont in Belgium. Many scholars interpret this piece as an Isis figure from a roman context. The object shows an awareness of Egyptian traditions. Stylistically the statue from Mariemont seems to fit within the Ptolemaic Egyptian repertoire but the lack of parallels with statues from a certified context lead us to reconsider its authenticity. This sculpture has been interpreted as a roman copy in monographs. New observations based on the folds allow us to identify parallels with a statue from Alexandria dating from the second century BC. This comparison raises serious questions concerning terms such as copy, imitation or eclecticism. In conclusion, this paper tries to suggest a new key for our understanding of the statue from Mariemont.
 
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Trois divinités tyriennes dans le récit de I Rois 18
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The Storm-God invokated by the prophets of Baal at I Kings 18 has been identified with Baal Shamīm or Milqart. The dance performed by the prophets, Elijah’s ironic references to some business, travel or sleep of this silent God and the presence of the prophets of Asherah allow us to see in this text a polemic against the three main tyrian deities : Baal Shamīm, Ashtart and Milqart.
 
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Note sur la Gordyène
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As a region of Upper Mesopotamia located in the upper part of the Tigris basin, between Armenia and ancient Assyria, but also between the Roman and Persian empires, Gordyene appears regularly in the historical sources, but dedicated studies to it are curiously missing. It seems useful to propose a commented inventory of the main sources – essentially literary, but also epigraphic – concerning this region, and moreover to give a modest notice devoted to the historical geography and to a geopolitical view on that peculiar space, between the reigns of Teglath-Phalasar III and Julian the Apostate (VIIIth century B.C.-IVth century A.D.).
 
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Etimologia indoeuropea ed etimologia del sistema. Riflessioni sul lat. pontifex
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Dans le mot latin pontifex, l’élément ponti-, considéré en tant que « parcours » qui unit l’homme à la divinité, donnait à ce terme la signification de « celui qui ouvre, qui prépare un chemin ». C’était en effet le pontifex qui, pendant le rituel, était en mesure de réaliser ce contact. Une comparaison avec des textes indiens a montré que pontifex n’est pas une création du latin, l’image métaphorique a une origine bien plus ancienne qui remonte à la phase indo-européenne. Dans cet essai, on analyse la présence de cette métaphore dans les langues anatoliennes. Dans les rituels des Hittites, on parle souvent non seulement des chemins que la divinité parcourt pour assister à la cérémonie, mais c’est la formule même du célébrant qui est définie un pont.
 
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Un plastron d’époque néo-assyrienne
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The following study analyses the so-called “irtu” discs worn by some soldiers related to the Neo-Assyrian army as its military personal or its opponents. The written, visual and material sources will be collected and examined to present the data we can infer of them. Pictures and drawings illustrate this study of some practical aspects of armoury in the Ancient Near East during the Ist Millenium B.C. No need is to mention that the aim of this work is to prepare some basis for further research until we are provided with new data or evidence.
 
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La question des mots et noms mitanni-aryens, légués par les Indo-Iraniens du Mittanni
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The paper deals with the issue of the Indo-Aryan-sounding superstrate, represented by Person Names and words in Hurrian texts of the Mittanni Kingdom and related documents of the ancient Near-East. It reexamines the items studied by scholars like Mayrhofer and proposes additional data, that appear to have been overlooked. It also tries to address the reasons why Indo-Iranian people would have ventured in the Near-East.
 
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Le délit de desertio et de transfugium dans les guerres civiles à Rome sous la République
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In times of civil war, desertion, which is a crime punishable by death, almost looks like a minor offense in the Roman army. Sanctions, usually reserved for deserters and defectors, are very rarely applied during the intestine wars of the Republic. The chiefs of the army, by buying the loyalty of soldiers openly, encourage and orchestrate desertion. In the context of chaos that characterized the conflicts between Romans led to a suspension of normal operation of the army, desertion is used as a political weapon by the military officials and political parties to weaken or eliminate the opponent.
 
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Le parti pris des vases. Étude eugubine (IIIe-IIe s. av. J.-C.)
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In the Tables of Gubbio, a very important place is given to the dishes, which obviously play the role of receptacle for products involved in the sacrifice, but also have a specific religious role. This study attempts to define the nature and function of each of the mentioned containers and their ritual use. They have not only to supply the cooking of the sacrifice with a whole set of varied dishes or pans, but also to present offerings to the gods in suited plates or cups. Moreover, the containers go with the gesture, support the prayer. By the play of their colours, they even express the ambiguity of particular contradictory gods and, more widely, reflects a universe made of opposites which the rite has to reconcile.
 
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Propos sur la naissance de la notion de sphère dans l’Antiquité
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the Greek notion of sphere is part of a process of continuity / rupture which goes back to Sumer. There, the cosmos becomes in astronomy the celestial sphere, known under two aspects: that of the theory where, although absent from the lexicon, we can deduce from two tangent circles which wrap it; and that of the practice where is used the hemispherical sundial, named scaphe by the Greeks; at the same time, the "totality" is, on the clay tablet, a perfect disk / ring. In Greece, the mathematical sphere, which assumes a perfect shape and acquires for the human thought a remarkable efficiency, also ensues from the vision of a cosmos influenced by Mesopotamia and feeds, in the diverse stages of its elaboration, contributions of the Babylonian astronomy.
 
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Le sidétique et le pisidien
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This contribution offers a short presentation of the Pisidian and the Sidetic languages who, such as the Lycian, are direct heiresses to the Luwian language. Yet, the documentation relating to Pisidian and Sidetic remains scarce. At the end of the article the reader finds a comparative board between the Luwian (cuneiform and hieroglyphic) and the Lycian languages.
 
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D’Horus à Pharaon et au peuple égyptien. La symbolique du dieu-fils dans la civilisation de l’Égypte pharaonique (2778-1085 av. J.-C.)
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According to the osirian myth, the man (Osiris) marries her sister (Isis) and it is the child (Horus) stemming from this union who becomes the heir apparent. It thus seems clearly that the son (Horus) becomes a god-son intended to govern Egypt, ground of the gods. The symbolism of the god-son indicates that in the country of Pharaoh, the power is above all intended for the male child, and that the sisters come to give evidence that it is indeed about a justifiable child. The son who is placed on the Egyptian throne has to be a god-son, because Egypt, being the property of the gods, the only ones of the gods-son are authorized to insure the royal load.
 
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Pianificazioni urbanistiche a Bosra nel II e III secolo d.C. Realtà, natura e sostanza degli interventi edilizi romani nella capitale della provincia Arabia
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L’article étudie l’urbanisme de Bostra, capitale de la province romaine d’Arabie à l’époque de Trajan et durant les IIe et IIIe siècles ap. J.-C. Une première partie est axée sur l’analyse de la cité d’époque romaine, en particulier l’architecture civile des deux premiers siècles de la phase provinciale. Dans une deuxième partie sont étudiées les origines, les causes, les modalités et les temps du développement urbanistique de la cité, en mettant en évidence l’idéologie et les caractères socio-culturels résultant de la romanisation. Le schéma interprétatif proposé révèle une ville dans laquelle, bien avant l’attribution du statut de capitale provinciale en 106 ap. J.-C., émerge une identité culturelle hellénistico-romaine. En effet, cette étude met en avant d’une part la coexistence d’éléments locaux de tradition nabatéenne et d’autre part l’adoption de modes de vie allogènes, en particulier romains. Ceci est évident si l’on considère l’apparat monumental du IIe s. ap. J.-C., conditionné par la présence en ville de la IIIe légion Cyrenaica. Le culte impérial est associé aux divinités locales, qui incarnent l’identité religieuse traditionnelle de la population urbaine. Une nouvelle phase de développement monumental est chronologiquement attestée à l’époque des Sévères ; celle-ci modifie le visage de Bostra : à la différence de l’urbanisme pratiqué au IIe s. ap. J.-C., la ville se remplit d’édifices dépourvus de rôle fonctionnel direct mais revêtus d’une forte connotation idéologique.
 
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Le bestiaire des princes clients du Proche-Orient romain :  animaux symboliques et propagande (Ier s. av. J.-C. - Ier s. apr. J.-C.)
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The Commagenian, Nabataean and Iturean princes, and even Herod the rex iudaicus, used the image of the eagle as a symbol of their authority. However, the meaning of these eagles was different according to the context. Other images of animals appeared in the iconography of the near-eastern “friends of the Romans”: horses, dromedaries and also a symbolic and zodiacal bestiary in Commagene and Pontus.
 
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L'essor de l'Assyrie et la fragilité des normes politiques
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This essay explores the dynamic relationship between political events and poltical ideology through a study of Assyria’s place within the family of great powers at the end of the Bronze Age. Focus is placed on the Bronze Age convention of treating international relations in terms of kinship. By tracking Assyria’s rise to power in the 14th and 13th centuries B.C. it is possible to identify moments of crisis in the reigning ideology of royal brotherhood and hence gain a sharper appreciation of the fragile nature of Bronze Age political norms.
 
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