Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien

Collectif. — Book in French. Comment les Hittites, ce peuple de langue indo-européenne, qui a vécu en Anatolie au second millénaire avant J.-C., a-t-il construit son identité ? Il s'agit ici d'étudier les Hittites non pas de leur point de vue – comme il est habituel de le faire –, mais du point de vue des «autres», de ceux qui ont contribué à la construction de cette identité. Pour ne citer qu'eux : les Hourrites ont eu une grande influence dans le domaine religieux, les Louvites sont à l'origine des hiéroglyphes hittito-louvites… (Details)

De l’influence des ‘Traités de vassalité’ hittites sur la composition du livre du deutéronome. Évaluation d’une théorie classique en exégèse biblique
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The hypothesis of an influence of the hittite vassal treaties on the biblical text has been proposed by Mendenhall in 1954, whoses studies dealt with the link between hittite texts and the Covenant narratives and laws in Ex 19-24, and later by Weinfeld who tried to demonstrate the influence of both akkadian legal texts and hittites treaties on the structure of the book of Deuteronomy. The recent research about the composition of Deuteronomy lead to the conclusion that the narrative and legal texts of this book belong to different stages of its composition, and so call in question Weinfeld’s hypothesis. Nevertheless, there could have been an indirect cultural influence of the hittite treaties on the biblical texts, and of the assyrian litterature as well, as the litterary analysis can find similarities in the concepts and in the vocabulary.
 
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Vision de l’autre à travers le voile du passé, vision de l’ailleurs ; entre oubli et mémoire éclatée, entre Histoire et mythologie : le cas hourro-hittite confronté aux légendes des Éthiopiens-kushites
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Few documents depict the various elements shaping the Hittite empire of the second millenium. The example of the Hurrians, who were the Hittites' foe at first before turning into their civilization masters, is relevant in this regard. Their symbiosis with the Hittites, which justifies the «Hurro-Hittites » designation, makes it difficult to uncover any alterity between them. This is all the more true from the perspective of the classical and biblical testimony. If the Hittite and Mitannian empires seem to have faded into oblivion, scholars of the modern era have raised some misquoted historical accounts. Thereby, it is arguable that other peoples from the Antiquity shared connections not yet identified, or not formally differentiated. In this respect, a large amount of evidence led my research towards Greek and Ethiopian texts, and the Kouchites of the bible, as anachronous as this may seem.
 
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Le grand mariage hittite de Ramsès II et son empreinte dans la mémoire égyptienne
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C. CANNUYER, « Le grand “mariage hittite” de Ramsès II et son empreinte dans la mémoire égyptienne », dans I. KLOCK-FONTANILLE, S. BIETTLOT et K. MESHOUB (éd.), Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de colloque, Université de Limoges 27-28 novembre 2008, Brussels, 2010, p. 87-104.
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Amour, musique et poésie au gré des relations égypto-hittites. Réflexions autour d’une statuette de harpiste ‘hittite’ de Médinet el-Gourob/Miour
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The Hittite-Egyptian relationships are not being tackled here based on the events that have marked international history. We will be looking at a little statue, which embodies a humble protagonist of the relations established between Egypt and Anatolia. This is the statue of a musician labelled as "Hittite", which was discovered in Médinet en-Gourob, the royal residence and harem where Asian spouses of the pharaoh are thought to have resided.
 
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L’apport hourrite dans l’élaboration de la culture hittite du XIIIe siècle av. J.-C.
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In the first part of this contribution the reader finds an historical aspect relating to the great moments of the Hurrian civilization . An information is added about the progress of the decipherment of the Hurrian language. The second part deals with the influence of the Hurrians during the 13st century B.C. especially over the Hittite language and the official religion of the Hittite Empire.
 
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Palaïte Ha-ap-na-aš (Hapnaš) : un vestige eurasiatique en anatolien ?
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Our approach starts from Palaite ḫaapnaš (=Hittite ḫapaš) “river” and is based on a linguistic Eurasiatic survey originating in J. Greenberg. He posits that *no (*nV) is a marker establishing the membership of the macrofamily and that ḫapaš stems from a term applying to water. To justify these developments, our study focuses on a pre-celtic term onno “river” analyzed as *(H)on-spring + *nV in order to try to show that a structure *dh-(h)on-, with the *dh- prefix, after a linguistic break, went into the making of an Indo-European root (“to flow”). The pair ḫaapnaš/ ḫapaš is then considered within the complex history of the Anatolian genitive, at this stage of our approach we resort to a former membership case reshaped in various ways into the nominative when some verb forms, coming after Eurasiatic verbo-nominals, appeared in Indo-European. The analysis of Eurasiatic and Indo-European is completed with a comparative discussion of Lithuanian upė “river”.
 
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L’Assyrie en Syrie et en Anatolie au début de l’empire : cultures en conflit, cultures en contact
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During their expansion toward West, the kings of early Neo-Assyrian period met, in Northern Mesopotamia and in Southern Anatolia, Luwian and Aramean populations, who had then established prosperous States along the main caravan roads developing trade and commercial exchanges all over the Middle East. Their culture and religion conserved Bronze Age Syrian, Hurrian and Hittite traditions, shared also by Mesopotamian States and Empires. The Assyrian kings of the 9th century BC, claiming their hegemony on these territories, after the conquest began there a program of colonization, which took different forms, according to the geographical or political situation of the region. The ongoing studies of two of these colonies, Tushhan and Kar-Assurnazirpal, founded by Assurnazirpal II, illustrate well the differences characterizing the program of Assyrian colonization, depending not only on  changing political and economic realities, but maybe also on specific needs of the State administration, and of its ideology.
 
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Les Hittites en Syrie du Nord : contacts, influences et échanges
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In the14th and 13th centuries BC, after Šuppiluliuma I conquered the North Syrian region, the Hittite state ruled over the small kingdoms of North-Syria ; diplomatic and commercial relations, as well as cultural exchanges, became frequent, with effects on the social organization, on the legal institutions, on the scribal and artistic traditions and on the local Syrian customs. In this contribution, some exemplary cases are examined.
 
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Les Hittites dans les sources mésopotamiennes
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The article focuses on the Mesopotamian image of the Hittites from the Old Assyrian to the Neo-Assyrian period. The source material is studied and a history of contacts between the Anatolians/Hittites and the Mesopotamians is reconstructed. Special attention is given to the expedition of Mursili I against Babylonia and to the contacts between the Neo-Assyrian kings and the Neo-Hittite states in southeastern Anatolia.
 
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Milet entre Mycéniens et Hittites
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In the second half of the 15th century B.C., the Mycenaeans replaced the Minoans in Miletus, as shown by archaeological evidence and Hittite records that mention Miletus, under the name Millawanda, and the land of Aḫḫijawā. Miletus was then in the political orbit of the king of Aḫḫijawā and its relations with the Hittites were often hostile. However, at the end of the 13th century, the town passed under the control of the Hittite king. According to Homer, Miletus was a Carian city during the time of the Trojan War.
 
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La réforme de la langue hittite au XIIIe siècle av. J.C. : instrument au service de la construction de l’identité
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In 13th century BCE Hittite texts some words are marked with special signs called 'gloss-wedges'.  It is generally assumed that they were used to mark words of foreign, mostly Luwian origin.  However, a semantic analysis of the relevant vocabulary reveals that if the words had been marked because of their foreign origin, this would seem to have been a form of extreme linguistic purism serving nationalistic purposes.  Because of the lack of evidence for nationalistic tendencies in Hittite texts and Hittite culture in general this seems highly implausible.   On the other hand, a thorough investigation of contexts in which words with gloss-wedges appear gives reasons to assume that words were marked with gloss-wedges for ideological purposes, i.e. to shape moral identity and enforce a proper code of conduct in the last decades of the Hittite Empire
 
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Postface. Ethnogenèse et identité dans l’Anatolie de la période hittite ou : Qui étaient les Hittites ?
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J. KLINGER, « Postface. Ethnogenèse et identité dans l’Anatolie de la période hittite ou : Qui étaient les Hittites ? », dans I. KLOCK-FONTANILLE, S. BIETTLOT et K. MESHOUB (éd.), Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de colloque, Université de Limoges 27-28 novembre 2008, Brussels, 2010, p. 227-238.
 
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