Res Antiquae II (2005)

Volume II

Res Antiquae (RANT) is a journal dedicated to antiquity. It deals with the antique civilizations that developped around the Mediterranean Sea and its aim is to establish links between the various disciplines that are too often separated.

ISSN 1781-1317

See the papers and the abstracts

55,00 €
Tabal sur un sceau-cylindre araméen
= Paper =
On the cylinder seal are represented a sacred tree with on each side human-headed bulls.  They hold on up-raised hands a winged sun disk from which arise three human heads, a central figure flanked by saluting assistants. On the left, a man raises his hands towards the central group while, on the right, a person wearing a fish costume is performing an act of aspersion. The human-headed bull to the left has his body turned in but is looking back over his shoulder at the suppliant and at a second figure who is holding a sickle-sword in his right hand and under his left arm a quadruped which has its head turned looking at the central scene.  Under the hind legs of this animal, a monkey-like creature is crouched facing right. Above the left-most personage are six small six-pointed stars and just above the suppliant’s raised hands is a much larger eight-pointed orb.
The motifs of this scene are Mesopotamian and date to the VIIIth or the VIIth century, while the Aramaic inscription may be dated palaeographically to about the middle of the VIIth century. It reads LTBLY MN ≥BLNH, "(Belonging) to Tabal≠ (or, if aramaic,Tabalay] of Abilena."  Tabal≠  (or Tabalay) appears to be a gentilic, referring to the land of Tabal, probably to be located in Asia Minor in one of the areas conquered a few decades earlier by Sargon II of Assyria. The owner of the seal wished to be identified both with his homeland and with his new domicile in the Abilena region of the Anti-Lebanon range on the eastern slopes of the Lebanese Beqa Valley.
 
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Le Tabal de la préhistoire au début de l’ère chrétienne
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The lector finds here a short historical introduction to the Tabal, an important country of Southern Anatolia.
 
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Les Phrygiens en Tyanide et le problème des Muskis
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In the first part of this article is questioned the Phrygian influence in the region of Tyana. Three elements are discussed : the Phrygian fibulae on the Ivriz relief, dated at the end of the 8th c. B.C., the Phrygian bronze material in the Kaynarca tumulus and the Phrygian inscriptions of Tyana. The Phrygian influence in the Tyana region appears to be certain at  the end of the 8th c. B.C. ; it is at least cultural and political but certainly also economical. In the second part, the Muski problem is discussed according to our main source : the Assyrian annals. The conclusions are that the Muski king Mita appears to be the same as the Phrygian king Midas but the Mushkis can’t be assimilated to the Phrygians. This assimilation reinforces the Phrygian presence in the Tyana region as well as the contacts between Phrygians and Assyrians.
 
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Des Grands Rois de Tarḫuntašša aux Grands Rois de Tabal
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Shortly before and after the fall of the Hittite Empire dynasty and the capital, Ḫattuša, the title “Great King” is found in some hieroglyphic inscriptions belonging:
– at first to the vassal king of Tarḫuntašša, a germain of the hittite king (inscription from Hatip and seals, second half of the 13th century B.C.),
– to the so-called Hartapu (Kızıldağ, Karadağ, Burunkaya, 12th century B.C. ?),
– to some kings of Tabal in the assyrian epoch (9th-7th centuries B.C.)
The difficult question of the continuity or of the discontinuity between Kurunta, king and Great King of Tarḫuntašša, Hartapu and the late kings of Tabal is posed and settled here on behalf of the discontinuity.
 
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Divinités particulières du Tabal
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In this contribution, R. Lebrun gives a study of important deities in the Tabal during the Iron Age. The majority of the gods were luwian but we find also the remembrance of some hurrian gods such as the Stormgod and the Goddess Hebat.
 
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Télipinu au Tabal
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The Weather God of the vineyard mentioned in the Sultanhan and Bor inscriptions show many similarities with the one depicted on the Ivriz rock carving. Il therefore seems likely that we are dealing with the same deity when looking at these three monuments. The God shows characteristic features which compare well with those of Telepinu, one of the most important gods of the Hittite pantheon during the second millennium B.C.
 
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Les lapicides du Tabal
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The paper studies names of lapidaries or scribes in their context, as well as their survival in the greek-asianic language. Therefore we establish a survey on the basis of corpus of the texts of Tabal.  Eventually we provide a vocabulary of words meaning "to engrave" or  "to incise" in luwian. Furthermore, we argue that there exists a specific name for "the lapidary". Finally we list anthroponyms which still be found in the greek-asianic.

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Au sujet des représentations du Cerbère de type "macrobien" et pseudo-macrobien : une recherche iconologique
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This paper is dealing once again with the iconologic analysis of the so-called Macrobian-Cerberous whose description is given by Macrobius, Saturnals I, 20 : a central standing lion with two lateral heads of a dog and a wolf shooting from its neck, with two snakes climbing up along the lion’s legs and connecting the three animal heads. Two new representations of this fabulous tricephalous animal engraved in the famous book L’Antiquité expliquée en figures of Dom Bernard de Montfaucon (1719-1724) as well as other figures missing in the iconographic corpus of this deity, provide the opportunity to give a new approach of this monster from an egyptological point of view. The basic concept of the tricephalous Cerberous, as well as the iconography of this god were the result of an intellectual exchange between two high figures belonging to the sacerdotal class : Manetho the Sebennytus and the Athenian Timothy the Eumolpid. Embodying both Egyptian and Greek beliefs in the prospect of the creation of the theology of the god Sarapis, at Memphis, under the reign of Ptolemeus Sôter, they promoted a bifocal belief in giving both the Greeks and the Egyptian the god Sarapis ruling in the Hades, and mastering the allegorical « dog » Cerberous, whose certain features are adapted from Egyptian iconography.
 
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Riflessioni sulla Logica e sul modo di pensare antichi
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Les résultats actuels des études indo-européennes révèlent un aspect du système linguistique préhistorique qui contraste radicalement avec la grammaire traditionnelle. Cet article tend à démontrer que les différences dans l’expression et la syntaxe correspondent à des différences dans l’organisation mentale et le système de la logique. Il est de plus suggéré que le mécanisme linguistique antique cadre mieux avec le langage tel qu’il est activé dans le cerveau, ceci en accord avec ce qui est généralement admis au niveau de la base neurologique du langage. Par parenthèse, une relation est signalée entre cette représentation du langage et la philosophie de Bergson.

 
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Considérations sur la légende d’Attus Navius
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The Roman augur Attus Navius was famous for having prevented king Tarquinius the Elder from changing the tarditional organization of Roman cavalry with its three centuries. Other texts tell us how, as a child, he reinvented the art of observing birds as practiced by augurs. He was also connected with the alleged translation of the fig-tree under which the founder of Rome, Romulus, was suckled by the she-wolf. These three stories can be related together, as forming parts of a career conceived along the lines of old Indo-European trifunctional ideology, after which Attus Navius’ mysterious vanishing can be understood as a kind of heroization.
 
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Chypre, Rhodes et l’Anatolie méridionale : la question ionienne
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Examination of the Aegyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Biblical and Achaemenid texts, indicates that the “Ionians” (Yaw/mnayi, Yawan, Yauna) were not only Greek and Cypriot populations, but also Anatolian populations, mainly Luwians, settled at the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts during the Archaic and Classical periods. For the Oriental chanceleries, the “Ionians” were the non-semitic western “Sea Peoples”, from Cicilia to Greece.
 
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"Referre, revocare, restituere". Forme e significati dell’urbanistica nella Roma di fine I sec. d.C.
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L’article de Marco Cavalieri a pour objet la politique urbanistique à Rome à l’époque de l’empereur Domitien. Partant du présupposé que l’action évergétique du souvrain est toujours le résultat de la rencontre entre exigences du pouvoir et du consentement populaire, le texte prend en considération toutes les interventions architectonico-urbanistiques les plus connues voulues par Domitien, cherchant à en comprendre de manière plus approfondie les motivations et les buts idéologiques. Les conclusions auxquelles il arrive mettent en évidence un projet de rénovation de l’aspect urbanistique de la ville fondé sur les nouvelles exigences du dominatus : d’un côté, l’exaltation de la figure du souverain au moyen d’une politique dynastique et triomphaliste, de l’autre un nouveau centre de concentration politique, le Palatium. Comme conséquence à tout ceci, la démagogie toujours attentive du panem et circenses.
 
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Carl Robert et la peinture de Polygnote
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Greek painter Polygnotos’ paintings are only preserved by Pausanias’ description and by some isolated mentions of other Greek and Latin writers. At the end of the nineteenth century, the German scholar Carl Robert wrote three books on the works of this artist, in which he attempts to reconstitute three pictures (Nekyia, Ilioupersis and the Battle of Marathon). His attempt is part of a tradition that traces back to the middle of the eighteenth century. This paper shows how these studies on the Greek painting fall into line with Carl Robert’s research works, in what they are distinguishable from previous reconstitutions and which innovations they brought in the knowledge of the Greek painting of the fifth century B.C. as well as in the edition of Pausanias’ text.

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Les techniques d’éloge dans les Panégyriques Gaulois
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The collection of Gallic panegyrics is composed of speeches given during the 3rd and 4th centuries AD on the glory of leaders of the Roman Empire. The authors, native Gallic rhetors, devote a considerable portion of their speeches to the account of the princes’ struggles against disturbers of Roman order, whether in the form of internal rebellion, invasions from beyond the limes, or attempted usurpations. Based on a corpus of three panegyrics pulled from this collection, the present article focuses on displaying, through the accounts of combat against the Empire’s adversaries, the techniques of princely eulogy implemented by the orators in the outline of both their content and their form. These methods, supported by the appropriate stylistic artifices, can be divided into three orientations : exalting the qualities and actions of the laudandus, hiding his defaults and less honourable actions and disparaging his opponents.
 
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Les douze grands dieux de l’Énéide
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By the time when Vergil wrote the Aeneid, the number and identification of the Olympian Gods had long been determined. The Gods were twelve in number, collectively known as “dodekatheoi”, and their names, in Latin, were: Apollo, Ceres, Diana, Iuno, Iuppiter, Mars, Mercurius, Minerva, Neptunus, Venus, Vesta and Vulcanus. Yet it may be safely assumed that no order or, as it were, logical sequence, was ever imposed for the group as a whole, so that any artist or writer in Antiquity remained free to represent or describe them in the order of his choice. This article focuses on the question of the Twelve Olympians in the Aeneid. It puts forward a method whose purpose is to examine whether each book of the poem may be said to be dominated by one particular Olympian god. This investigation comes as a complement of previous studies already published about the literary architecture of the Aeneid.
 
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Distribution sociale de l’architecture domestique à Ougarit
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Did Ugaritans gather in separate quarters of the city and, whether it is the case, how is it marked architecturally? Six criteria have been established which allow to classify 33 houses in terms of social stratification. These are groundsurface, use of ashlar, hydraulic equipment, funeral devices, modifications of the surface and organisation of the house. Their application seems to indicate a strong distinction between people from the north-western part of the tell and those living in the following trenches : « Centre de la ville », « Ville et Sud » and maybe « Sud Acropole ». Actually, investment in domestic architecture seems much more important in the Residential and North-western quarters. The landed mobility on the tell is also looked into through the established criteria.
 
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Distribution sociale de l’architecture domestique à Ougarit
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How was space perceived and represented in the Roman world ? An ancient map from a medieval manuscript might give us a few answers. This map represents the northern part of the East Roman Empire. We are studying here the representation of Asia Minor.
 
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La royauté en Mésopotamie. Mort et succession du roi
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According to the ancient traditions, the king, in Mesopotamia, was supposed to be chosen by the gods and was reigning under their patronage.
However, in actual fact, the king went sometimes into exile, or the king happened to be killed by his son; a usurper seized the throne. The queen mother or the royal spouses planned the accession to the throne.
All these events are basically political problems, which include no religious references.
 
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Grands rois, petits rois, gouvernants de second rang
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This paper investigates the relations between the Hittite and the Assyrian kings during the 13th century B.C., with special reference to the use of the title “Great King”. New possible interpretations of some famous passages of the royal correspondence are proposed, as well of the attitude of the Hittite king towards the Assyrian king.

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A Proposito di Tebe Ipoplacia
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À propos de Thèbes ΎΠΟΠΛΑΚΊΗ: La critique moderne tend à situer Thèbes Ύποπλακίη, la capitale des Ciliciens, d’après une vision « restrictive » de la guerre de Troie et de son étendue réelle.Toutefois, si nous nous fixons l’objectif de déterminer – au-delà des exigences poétiques d’insérer plusieurs événements dans un cadre unitaire – les témoignages objectifs que l’épos homérique nous offre – enrichis par les données de la tradition – relatifs à Thèbes Ύποπλακίη apparaîtront sous un jour tout à fait différent, situés dans une campagne militaire qui a précédé la guerre de Troie, dans un bien différent contexte géopolitique.

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Mises à mort rituelles et violences politiques à Rome sous la République et sous l’Empire
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This paper examines the Roman human sacrifices in situation of political violence, throughout the Republic and the Empire. First are considered the human sacrifices made in a private area, secondly the human sacrifices made in a public context.
 
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L’achéen Achille est-il l’ancêtre du philistin Goliath ? À propos de l’armement et de la technique de combat du Philistin
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After a first paper devoted to the iconographical evidence from the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu, this one analyzes the weapons of the Philistines from the textual evidence of the Old Testament, especially the description of the duel between Goliath and David. The scale-corset, the greaves of bronze, the javelin likened to a « weaver’s beam » and the singular contest give us some interesting information. In the problem of the supposed Aegean roots of the Philistine material culture, a close examination of the weapons and the singular contest shows that, apart from the greaves, they are typical in the ancient Near East at the end of the second millennium B.C.
 
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Gli alfabetari camuni
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En partant des travaux de M. G. Tibiletti Bruno (1990 et 1992) qui avaient amélioré, mais non pas résolu le problème de la lecture de tous les graphes des inscriptions prélatines gravées sur les roches du Val Camonica, dans mes travaux récents j’avais interprété la valeur des graphes les plus controversés, en les situant dans un système phonologique cohérent et morphologiquement motivé. Ceci a permis une analyse épigraphique plus soignée des séries alphabétiques que je présente dans cet article. La comparaison entre ces séries – provenant de deux zones différentes de la vallée, Piancogno et Zurla-Foppe di Nadro, et attribuables au ier siècle av. J.-C. – confirme la validité des interprétations des graphes et donne d’ultérieures indications sur les variantes graphématiques. La série théorique des signes vocaliques paraît très variée.

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