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Res Antiquae III (2006)

Volume III, 2006, 416 pages

Res Antiquae  (RANT) is a journal dedicated to antiquity. It deals with the antique civilizations that developped around the Mediterranean Sea and its aim is to establish links between the various disciplines that are too often separated.

ISSN 1781-1317

See the papers and the abstracts

55,00 €
Quelques réflexions sur la montagne comme lieu de culte des Hittites
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In this paper, the author presents some aspects of the organization of Hittite festivals when they take place on a mountain. Even if the texts are few and laconic, some details let us think that it required a large human assistance ; for example, the setting up of the “tent” before the king arrives, the forwarding of the supplies for the cultic offers, the coming of many people belonging to the palatial or religious staff. All these particulars show, in an unusual way, the importance of the Hittite outdoor religious festivals.
 
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La montagne d’après les données textuelles d’Ougarit
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This study of the textual data from Ugarit concerning mountains is organized around three topics. First, mountains are viewed as an elemental part of the sacred landscape of the kingdom of Ugarit, dwellings of gods, meeting place of divinities, the edge of the world. Then the question of the identification of administrative districts in terms of geographical regions is treated. The final theme is the importance for the economy of the natural resources found in the mountainous areas, particularly animal husbandry, agriculture and timber industry.
 
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La divinité du mont Argée
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Classical coins from Caesarea (Kayseri) in Cappadocia and gems depict the Argaeus mountain in relation with a solar deity and horse. Commentators often hesitated to give a name to this deity : Helios-Apollon, Zeus-Sarapis ? According to texts from Kanesh, compared with classical and iconographical sources, the Argaeus-deity could be Pirwa, god of the mountain and protector of horses, the sanctuary of which was a kind of baetyl.
 
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Par monts et par vaux infernaux : la topographie des enfers dans le monde grec
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In archaic and classical Greece, the infernal world is characterized by a large network of rivers and marshy zones. The landscape appears essentially like a meadow (leimwvn), in other words a field heavy with moisture. Nevertheless, it is no flat open country as will be shown in this paper.
 
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L’homme-montagne ou l’itinéraire d’un motif iconographique
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This paper suggests to precise the symbolical meaning of the half-human half-mountain figure. After looking back on the origin of this traditional theme of the Syro-Anatolian world, we will approach the question of the symbols’ diffusion in the ancient Near-East and especially of the iconographic exchanges between Mesopotamia and the Syro-Anatolian regions.
 
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Les montagnes dans l’historiographie et la géographie hittites
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The Hittite cuneiform texts and hieroglyphic inscriptions provide us with hundred of placenames, the names of countries, rivers or mountains. Names of numerous mountains, highlands or ranges are known. They allow to fix the borders between the hittite land and several vassal states (Kizzuwatna, Ugarit, Tarḫuntašša). They were the theatre of wars, especially against the “barbarous” Gasgas of the pontic chains, and of kings heroic deeds. Several sovereigns (Ammuna, Arnuwanda, Tutḫaliya) have taken a mountain name who was also the name of a god.
 
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Le(s) nom(s) de la montagne en louvite
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The name of the mountain in luwian raises difficulties, because of the use of the ideograms in both the hieroglyphic and cuneiform writings. Whereas *ariyatti- is an excellent candidate for cuneiform ḪUR.SAG-ti, it seems increasingly certain that the hieroglyphic sign MONS was read wati-. I showed that watti- “mountain” and other terms etymologically connected seem attested in cuneiform luwian as well. It is not, therefore, unimaginable that ḪUR.SAG-ti was read watti-.
 
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La montagne dans le monde hittite
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In this contribution, R. Lebrun suggests a semantic interpretation (via the Hittite and Luwian languages) of several important mountain names of Anatolia. We find so the revelation of the feelings of the ancient Anatolian populations concerning the mountains.
 
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Quand la Montagne se rend à la ville
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In a previous paper, I showed that several cults carried out on the Mountain were related to foundation, and were meant to reinforce the roots of kingship as well as regenerating the king when the latter was aged, ailed or diseased. Today, I will examine two ceremonies where the Mountains move towards the city and try to discover the meaning of these travels: a monthly festival and a procession ceremony included within the KI.LAM festivities. In both cases the Mountains go to the city of Hattusha: I will demonstrate that in these two cases their journey is aimed at consolidating royalty and foundation. A new interpretation of the KI.LAM can therefore be surmised: it was one of the most important Hittite religious festivals. I will nevertheless recall the main characteristics of Hittite mountains and some aspects of ritual foundations performed on mountaintops.
 
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Casius, le mont sacré de la Méditerranée orientale
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Mountains have always been considered as a natural way leading to heaven, as the bridge between human and divine. Some of them received particular attention and were adored as the true deities by the populations living around. Casius provides one of the most outstanding examples of this cult of the mountain in the past. This paper aims to emphasize the sacred character of this mountain by underlining its different aspects. As a border mountain, Casius occupies a site of great strategic importance, close to the Maditerranean Sea coast as the Orontes River’s mouth. Thoughout the Late Bronze Age, the chief deity of Ugarit’s pantheon dwellt on its summit nd, in the same period, Casius appeared to be the highest place of Hurrian mythology. During the classical antiquity, the cult of Zeus Casius confirmed the long continuity of this mountain’s fame in the ancient world.
 
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Les cultes de montagnes dans le monde louvite
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Texts of IId millenium B.C. underline the importance of mountains in Luwian minds. A few mounts are connected to Luwians, as Arinnanda, where Mursili fought Arzawian refugees. Devotions have been given to Harhara and Sarlaimi. The Hieroglyphic Inscription of Yalburt attested the existence of a sanctuary in Mount Patara (Lukka-Lands), venerated by Tudhaliya IV.
During the Ist millenium B.C., many deities are linked to mountains through the epiclesis of Oreios/eia. There is even a god named Oros in Cilicia. We examine particularly the case of Meter Oreia, rarely assimilated (maybe to Nemesis and Adrasteia in Lycia, more certainly to Athena in Cilicia).
 
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Les gloses étrusques
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We can find in Greek and Roman literature about sixty Etruscan glosses, i.e. translation of Etruscan words in Greek or Latin, which complete the knowleddge of Etruscan language we can get from epigraphical data. Unfortunately the help that these glosses can provide is of limited value. Most are of late period, even medieval times like the names of the Etruscan months, from the liber Glossarum (8th century), and regard particular fields of terminology, which are not the most important ones, like the numerous indications on plants provided by Dioscorides and others. Several indications have to be rejected : some Latin words are given as Etruscan, as a result of confusions which could happen in a late period in which specific nature of Etruscan language was no longer perceived. Glosses provided by earlier authors are generally more reliable ; but their scope was never to give an information about Etruscan language as such, but to explain the origin of Latin words held as Etruscan loan-words.
 
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Problèmes falisques
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The present paper aims at examining some contemporary problems related to Faliscan, in the fields of phonetics, morphology, lexicology and poetics. Attention is paid to the diachronic and synchronic relations of Faliscan with the other Italic languages, expecially with Latin. An etymological analysis is proposed for the Faliscan forms faced and umom.
 
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Le déchiffrement de l’étrusque. Histoire, problèmes et perspectives
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The aim of this study is definitely not to give a mere account of the decipherment of the Etruscan language, but to establish a connection between the history of that decipherment, the problems which had to be faced, and the issues usually raised by any decipherment. Consequently we will endeavour to describe demonstration procedures, to try to understand why the decipherment has assumed this shape and form, to analyse the methods which prevailed during that decipherment and the reasons why they were doomed to failure. Finally, we will examine the question of bilinguals: we will begin with the role played by bilinguals in various decipherments; then we will try to understand the part played by the tablets of Pyrgi, which will enable us to wonder about the main purposes of any decipherment.
 
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Langue et religion : le cas étrusque
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Many Etruscan words were adopted in the Latin language thanks to the renowned Etruscan piety. The author examines these loanwords and distinguishes three major phases : the 6th century B.C., when the religious architectural vocabulary of the Etruscans was introduced by Etruscan craftsmen, the 4th century B.C., when the haruspices serving Roman magistrates spread the Etruscan words peculiar to sacrifices, the 1st centuries B.C. and A.D., when the books on Etruscan divination were translated into Latin. The author completes and specifies the achievements of G. Breyer’s thesis on the Etruscan loanwords in Latin.
 
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La langue étrusque : connexions anatoliennes ?
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In this short contribution, R. Lebrun enumerates philological suggestions relating to a few probable connexions between Etruscan words and the Indo-european languages of Asia Minor (esp. Hittite and Luwian).
 
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Éléments d’onomastique hourrito-louvite et la légende étrusque de Tagès
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The story of Tages is one of the most authentic Etruscan legends. Nevertheless, his name cannot be easily explained by Etruscan. Both textual and epigraphical sources suggest some Anatolian connections with the Etruscan culture. If the knowledge transmitted by Tages is appropriate to search for the etymology of his own name in the eastern languages. This work makes an attempt to examine some linguistic elements belonging to Hurrian, Louvian or Hittite vocabularies in order to determine a possible extra-Italian origin for the Etruscan hero’s name.
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Étrusque et ibère : branches d’un substrat méditerranéen commun ?
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We consider here two non-Indoeuropean languages in the Western part of the Mediterranean sea. As they were in cultural contact, we try to find some clues of a common linguistical substract. Comparing both of them on some points, we may say that the evidence is too thin to assert a common origin, and that we must discard any relationship between them.
 
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Les génies armés, gardiens de la porte du pylône du temple d’Horus à Edfou
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On both jambs of Edfu’s temple pylon, at the northern side, the visitor can see the figures of 64 anthropoid genious carrying a weapon and affecting an offensive attitude. The legends assigned to these genious mention their names whose significations are related to a wide range of specific concepts of the war and to the psychology of terror in the Egyptian thought. The reading of the texts reveals that these figures, organized in three seasons (akhet, peret, shemu), are distributed in twelve squads (the twelve months). Each team consisting of an unequal number of genious is leaded by a god, in association with his defensive function according to the Apollinopolite mythology. The activity of these armed and terrifying protectors of the Edfu’s temple court is clearly associated to the mythological fight of the Darkness against the Light, i.e. the forces of the Evil and those of the Good. Actually, the pylon and the columns of Edfu’s temple are respectively used as a style and graduations of a solar clock. Therefore, during the solar year, the effects of this phenomenon are observable in the advance of the pylon’s shadow cast on the columns, from the southern (summer solstice)  to the northern side (winter solstice) of the court. According to the sacerdotal interpretation, the armed genious, by their magical power, were supposed to repulse the assault of Darkness against the temple, whose court was considered as a battle field, between the summer and the winter solstice.
 
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Anatolian Archaisms  and the Origin of Indo‑European Roots
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This paper presents evidence and arguments in favor of deriving ancient Indo-European Roots from Particles. In this way, it seeks to complete the picture of Proto-Indo-European syntax set forth in previous work. The "deictic" nature of the earliest reconstructible Indo-European speech is connected up.
 
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L'Asie mineure et ses langues
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This paper aims at presenting a general overview of the languages of Asia Minor in the 2nd and 1st millennia B.C. It focuses primarily on terminological questions, the history of the discovery and decipherment, and the state of the art. Up to date bibliographical references are given for text editions and grammatical studies for each of the languages in question.
 
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La maison de Mopsos en Cilicie et en Pamphylie à l’époque du Fer (XIIe-VIe s. av. J.-C.)
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The discovery of the Çinekoy Phoenician and Luwian inscription, ten years ago, throws new light on the importance of the « House of Mopsos » in Southern Anatolia during the Iron Age. Mopsos is no longer a pure legend but the eponym of an important dynasty. The Phoenician and Luwian inscriptions from the VIIIth-VIIth c. BCE show that this “House of Mopsos” was active not only in Cilicia but also in Pamphylia, especially in the foundations of new cities bearing the names of the rulers, and probably plaid an important role in the diffusion of the Phoenician alphabet to the Luwian people.
 
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Statues royales nabatéennes
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The royal iconography which appeared in the Nabataean kingdom is part of the imitation phenomenon of Hellenistic kingship by the Nabataean dynasty. Inscriptions found in Petra indicate that these images were private dedication to the king, not official monuments. However, it seems that this was the outcome of the royal propaganda which aimed at presenting the king as the benefactor of the people. The deification of a king named Obodas, probably at the time of Aretas IV, and the erection of statues in honour of this new god were also part of the royal propaganda.
 
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Où est mort le grand Pompée, l’adversaire malheureux de Jules César ?
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The place in front of which Pompey has been murdered and where his tomb and the Zeus Casios temple were located, is not situated in the middle of the offshore bar that separates, in the north, the Sirbonis / Bardaouil lake from the Mediterranean, a place that many people call Casion, but rather (ou most probably) in the plain at the east of Peluse, near  the western end of lake Sirbonis.
9,50 €